Information Related to The Revolution of 1857 (First Indian War of Independence):
The great revolution of 1857 AD took place only during Lord Canning's rule as Governor-General. The revolution of 1857 started from Meerut on May 10, 1857 AD, which gradually spread to places like Kanpur, Bareilly, Jhansi, Delhi, Awadh etc. This revolution started as a military revolt, but later changed its form to a mass revolt against British power, which was called India's first war of independence.
There is no consensus on the nature of this great revolution of 1857 AD. Scholars have propounded their different opinions about this, which are as follows - 'Sepoy Rebellion', 'Freedom Struggle', 'Feudalist Reaction', 'People's Revolution', 'National Rebellion', 'Muslim Conspiracy', 'Christian A religious war against religion' and 'the struggle of civilization and barbarism' etc.
Political Causes of the Revolt of 1857:
- Lord Wellesley Auxiliary Treaty - In the year 1798, the then Governor-General of India, Lord Wellesley, had made a subsidiary treaty with all the states of India, under which 1. British troops would be stationed on the territory of all the allied kings, those troops would be The cost of maintenance will be borne by the king. 3. A British resident will be appointed in the king's court who will send every news to the governor-general and 5 king will neither make any treaty with any other ruler nor break the British treaty. All these things were forcibly imposed on the rulers, due to which a widespread resentment began to arise in their mind.
- Lord Dalhousie's policy of lapse - In the year 1848 and the then Governor-General Lord Dalhousie made a law under which if an Indian ruler has no heir, then the British government will rule that state in future. This law came to be called the Law of Grab. Various rulers started showing their anger on this law, and this anger got more air during 1857.
- Ban on Jhansi's successor and Nana Saheb's pension stopped - When King Gangadhar Rao of Jhansi died, Rani Laxmibai expressed her desire to make an adopted son the heir but the British government did not allow her and ruled over Jhansi. Due to which the anger of the Rani of Jhansi and the people towards the British government started increasing. Nana Saheb was the adopted son of Peshwa Bajirao II. After the death of the Peshwa, the British Empire took the place of the Maratha Empire and also stopped the pension received by Nana Saheb, due to which the people of Kanpur started opposing the British government.
- British occupation of Satara and Nagpur- After the death of Shahji, the ruler of Satara in the year 1848, Satara was also occupied by the British Empire under the Lapse Act, due to which anger towards the British government began to arise among the soldiers of Satara. Soon after, the British government did the same to Nagpur as it had done to Satara. Negative thoughts about the British government were starting to arise in the minds of the soldiers and farmers of both the regions.
- Snatching their land from landlords and farmers - The British government had taxed the different provinces of India more and more and made some important laws. When a farmer and landlord could not fulfill their conditions, then they used to take possession of his land and property. This caused widespread resentment in the minds of both the farmer and the landlord.
Economic Causes of the Revolt of 1857:
- Snatching their livelihood from Indian artisans- Due to the Industrial Revolution in England, machine-made products were sold in India at very cheap prices, due to which the means of employment of Indian artisans were snatched and from above the British government imposed more taxes on them. Due to which the feeling of dissatisfaction started taking birth in the minds of those artisans.
- Business Policy of the British - Due to the business policy of the British, the trade of all the Indians of India had come to a standstill. For sending Indian products abroad, excessive fees had to be paid, in which there was a possibility of loss instead of profit and no one was ready to buy Indian products in India because their price was more than the products of England, due to which Indian trade almost came to an end and anger among Indian merchants began to grow.
- The policy of permanent settlement of the British Empire and excessive taxes - The British government made the landlords of India the owners of the land under the policy of permanent settlement. The zamindars who deposited a certain amount of tax in the government treasury and collected maximum amount of tax from the farmers. The government had imposed a huge amount of tax on the general public also, due to which the general public also started opposing the government.
Social and Religious Causes of the Revolt of 1857:
- Religious Disabilities Act of 1856 - The British government made a law in 1856 under which only persons who converted to Christianity were considered entitled to their ancestral property and they were given the facility of promotion in jobs, admission in educational institutions. Due to this law, the clergy converted Hindus and Muslims to Christianity on a large scale, due to which the Indian religious society started getting angry with the British.
- Reform work in Indian society - The British Empire saw some evils of Indian society at that time and decided to correct them, such as Lord William Bentinck in the year 1829, with the help of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, abolished the practice of Sati and child The marriage was banned. Due to this Indian Hindus considered it against their religion and started opposing the British government.
- English Education - The British had started English schools to educate the Indian society, in which they started providing education to Indians, due to which the people of all religions of India started to feel that they definitely want to make Indians Christian. He started English schools.
- Criticism of other religions by Christian preachers - Christian preachers started misrepresenting the scriptures and doctrines of other religions in order to describe their religion as the best in India, due to which there was widespread anger against the British in India.
Military Causes of the Revolt of 1857:
- Sending Indian soldiers to fight on the sea - In the year 1856, a law was passed according to which the soldiers could be sent across the sea to fight, but Hindu soldiers considered going across the sea to be against their religion.
- Indecent behavior with Indian soldiers- British soldiers used to behave indecently with Indian soldiers during the parade. They used to make fun of their civilization, culture and religion in front of the Indians, due to which the resentment of the Indian soldiers started increasing against the British government.
- Discrimination against Indians in salary, promotion and posting - British administration used to adopt a discriminatory policy with Indian soldiers, they only increased the salary and rank of British soldiers and officers. He also used to deploy Indians in disturbed areas while British soldiers were deployed in calm and clean areas.
The immediate causes of the revolt of 1857:
- Fat cartridges - The immediate cause of the 1857 revolution was the new greased cartridges given to the soldiers. These new handicrafts were covered with the fat of pigs and cows, which were torn from the mouth and put in the guns. Both Hindus and Muslims were included in the British army and they had refused to use it considering it against their religion, but the British government did not listen to their words. The use of these fat cartridges was first opposed by the soldiers of Barrackpore Cantonment. Knowing the truth of these acts, Mangal Pandey got angry and even killed a British officer.
Spread of the Revolution of 1857:
- Soon after the capture of Delhi, the rebellion spread to central and northern India.
- On June 4, a rebellion started in Lucknow under the leadership of Begum Hazrat Hazmat Mahal, in which Henry Lawtens was assassinated.
- On June 5, Kanpur was captured under the leadership of Nana Saheb, Nana Saheb was declared Peshwa.
- Rani Lakshmi Bai led the rebellion in Jhansi.
- After the fall of Jhansi, Lakshmi Bai along with Tatya Tope led the rebellion in Gwalior. Ultimately Lakshmibai attained Veergati while fighting the British General Huroes.
- On the death of Rani Lakshmi Bai, General Hughes said, "The woman who sleeps here among the Indian revolutionaries is a man."
- Tatya Tope's real name was Ramchandra Pandurang. He went to Nepal after the fall of Gwalior where a landlord was caught for the betrayal of Mansingh and hanged on 18 April 1859.
- In Jagripur, Bihar, the landlord Kunwar Singh raised the flag of the revolt of 1857.
- Maulvi Ahmadullah led the revolt of 1857 in Faizabad.
- The British, worried about Ahmadullah's activities, had announced a reward of 50 thousand rupees for his capture.
- Khan Bahadur Khan led the revolt of 1857 in Rohilkhand, which was captured and hanged.
- Raj Kumar Surendra Shahi and Ujjwal Shahi led the rebellion at Sambalpur in Orissa.
- Maniram Dutt led the revolt in Assam.
- Bengal, Punjab and most parts of South India did not participate in the rebellion.
- The British recaptured Delhi in September 1857 after a long and terrible war.
Major Leaders and Heroes of the Revolt of 1857:
|Name of rebel leader||Date of rebellion||Center|
|Bahadur Shah Zafar, Bakht Khan||11th May, 1857||Delhi|
|Nana Saheb, Tantya Tope||June 5, 1857||Kanpur|
|Begum Hazrat Mahal, Birjis Qadir||June 4, 1857||Lucknow|
|Rani Lakshmi Bai||4 June 1857||Jhansi|
|Kunwar Singh, Amar Singh||June 12, 1857||Jagdishpur|
|Maulvi Ahmadullah||June, 1857||Faizabad|
|Liaquat Ali||June, 1857||Allahabad|
|Khan Bahadur||June, 1857||Bareilly|
Consequences of the Revolt of 1857:
- After the rebellion, the Company rule in India was abolished and the rule of India was placed under the British Crown.
- The Governor General of India now came to be called the Viceroy.
- A 15-member Indian Council was set up with India Secretary.
- After the revolt of 1857, the proportion of Europeans to Indian soldiers in the army was increased on the report of the Peel Commission set up by the British Government to reorganize the army.
- Abandoning the policy of conquest and annexation towards Indian princely states, the government allowed the adoption of kings.
Important facts related to the Revolt of 1857:
- Bahadur Shah was a symbolic leader in Delhi. The actual leadership was in the hands of a council of soldiers, headed by Bakht Khan.
- The Governor General of India at the time of the Revolt of 1857 was Lord Canning.This revolt was devoid of any social alternative to be implemented after
- seizing power.
- The rulers of Punjab, Rajputana, Hyderabad and Madras did not participate at all in the revolt of 1857.
- There were many reasons for the failure of the rebellion, the main reason being lack of unity, organization and resources.
- The zamindars of Bengal helped the British to crush the rebels.
- B. D. Savarkar, through his book India's First War of Independence, gave rise to the notion that the revolt of 1857 was a well-planned national freedom struggle.
- In fact, the revolt of 1857 was not just a military rebellion, but every section of the society was involved in it. About one and a half lakh people died in the rebellion.