Prambanan Temple Yogyakarta Quick Facts

Placeयोग्यकर्ता प्रांत, जावा द्वीप, इंडोनेशिया
Built in850 ई॰
Built byराजा राकाई पिकाटन
Typeहिन्दू ऐतिहासिक मंदिर
Dedicatedभगवान शिव
Godत्रिमूर्ति
Architectural styleइंडोनेशिया शैली
Architectरैतंग पिकतेन

Prambanan Temple Yogyakarta Overview

Prambanan Temple is a Hindu temple located in Yogyakarta, the most populous island of Java, Indonesia, one of the most beautiful countries in the world. This Hindu temple is also known as Rara Jonggrang, which was built around the 9th century.

This temple is dedicated to the Hindu deity Lord Shiva. At present, it is the largest Hindu temple site in Indonesia and the second largest temple in Southeast Asia, due to which it has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in view of its artwork, architecture and history.

Prambanan Temple Yogyakarta History

Prambanan Temple on the ancient island of Java is the largest temple in Indonesia. An inscription has been found in the temple, the time of its construction has been given as 856 AD and this inscription has been named as Shivgriha inscription.

According to inscriptions, this temple was built in the middle of the 9th century by Rakai Pictan, the ruler of the Hindu Sanjaya dynasty. Temple was built due to the increase in the temples of Buddhism at that time.

After Rakai Pikatan this temple was expanded by Lokpal and Balitung Mahashambhu. But the reconstruction of the main Shiva temple was completed in 1953 and it was inaugurated by Dr. Sukarno. After Rakai Pikatan this temple was expanded by Lokpal and Balitung Mahashambhu. But the reconstruction of the main Shiva temple was completed in 1953 and it was inaugurated by Dr. Sukarno.

Following is the list of total 240 Temples in Prambanan Temple complex:

  • 3 Trimurti Temples: Three main temples dedicated to Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma.
  • 3 Vahana Temples: Three temples in front of the Trimurti temples, each dedicated to the deities of Garuda, Nandi and Hansa.
  • 2 Apita Temples: Located between the rows of Trimurti and Vahana temples on the north and south sides.
  • 4 Kelir Temples: Four smaller temples located on the four main gate directions of the inner region
  • 4 Patok Temples: Four smaller temples located at the four corners of the inner region
  • 224 Parvara Temples: An arrangement of hundreds of temples in four concentric square rows, the number of temples from inner row to outer row are- 44, 52, 60 and 68

Prambanan Temple Yogyakarta Interesting Facts

  1. Prambanan Complex also known as Rara Jonggrang Complex, is named after the popular legend of Rara Jonggrang, the temple is currently added to the List of World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.
  2. The Prambanan temple complex has three areas, the first being the outer area, marked by a rectangular wall. The second is the central region containing hundreds of smaller shrines, and the third is the holiest inner region containing eight main shrines and eight minor shrines.
  3. The inner zone or central complex of the temple is the most sacred of the three areas. It is situated on a square high platform, with stone gates at each of the four main points and the complex is surrounded by a square stone wall.
  4. Inside the main complex of Prambanan temple three main temples called Trimurti "Three forms" dedicated to the three gods (Lord Baba Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva) have been built.
  5. Prambanan Rara is the tallest and largest structure of the Shiva temple in the Jonggrang complex. The size of the temple structure is 47 meters high and 34 meters wide.
  6. The stairs of the main temple are located towards the east. The eastern gate of the Shiva Temple is flanked by two smaller shrines, dedicated to the patron deities, Mahakala and Nandiswara.
  7. There are Five chambers inside the main temple with four smaller chambers in each direction and a larger main hall in the central part of the temple. This is the largest complex of Prambanan Temple. Inside it is a three meter high statue of Shiva Mahadev.
  8. Apart from this, the other three smaller chambers have idols of Hindu deities related to Shiva in which idols of Lord Shiva's wife Parvati, sage Agastya, and their son Ganesh is installed. An idol of Agastya is seated in the south chamber, the west chamber houses the idol of Ganesha, while in the north chamber Durga is seated as Mahishasura Mardini, depicting Durga slaying the bull demon.
  9. Two other main shrines are also present inside the Prambanan temple, which are dedicated to Lord Vishnu and Brahma. The width of both the temples is 20 meters and the height is 33 meters.
  10. In addition to the deities inside the temple, temples of their vehicles are also present, including Shiva's bull Nandi, Brahma's sacred swan, and Vishnu's Garuda. There is a Nandi temple just in front of the Shiva temple and next to it, there are other idols as well, the idol of the moon god and the idol of the sun god Surya are also installed.
  11. Right in front of the temple of Lord Brahma is the sacred Hans temple and opposite the Vishnu temple is the temple dedicated to Garuda. In addition, the Garuda bird holds an important role for Indonesia, as it is the national symbol of Indonesia.
  12. There are Four rows of 224 individual small shrines in the central area of ​​the temple. But most of these temples are in ruins and out of which only a few temples have been reconstructed. These concentric rows of temples were built in a similar design. These temples are called "Kandi perwara" protectors or complementary temple buildings.
  13. The Architecture of Prambanan Temple follows typical Hindu architectural traditions based on Vastu Shastra. The temple design incorporated the plan arrangement of the Mandala temple and the high towering towers typical of Hindu temples.
  14. The explorers of the Prambanan temple found a casket of copper, charcoal, ashes, 20 coins, ornaments, glass, gold and silver leaves from the main center of the temple with a pile of stone, charcoal, charred animal bones and a stone coffin. Pieces, seashells and 12 gold leaves were found.
  15. The Temple is built on the basis of a legend narrating the story of the Hindu epic Ramayana and Bhagavata Purana. Legendary bas-relief panels were carved along the inner balustrade wall in the gallery around the three main temples. In which a detailed article has been written about the circumambulation of the temple by the pilgrims.
  16. On the lower outer wall of the main Temple there is also a lion statue depicting the raised Kalpavriksha trees. This tree is typical in the Prambanan temple complex, hence it is also called "Prambanan Panel".

  Last update :  Wed 3 Aug 2022
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