He received his doctorate in quantum chemistry in 1986 and began his career working as a research scientist until 1989. Merkel entered politics in the wake of the 1989 revolutions, serving as deputy spokespersons for the former democratically elected East German government led by Lothar de Mazier. Merkel was elected to the Bundestag for the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern after the German reunification in 1990. As Chancellor Helmut Kohl's Conservancy, Merkel was appointed as the Minister of Women and Youth in 1991, later in 1994 as Minister of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. After the CDU lost the 1998 federal election, Merkel was elected CDU general secretary.
She was the Leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2005. After the 2005 federal election, Merkel was appointed as Chancellor of Germany to serve as Gerhard Schröder, including the CDU, its Bavarian sister party, The Christian Union (CSU). And Social Democratic Party (SPD). Merkel is the first woman to be elected Chancellor, and the first Chancellor after German reunification who was raised in East East Germany. In the 2009 federal election, the CDU gained the largest share of the vote, and Merkel was able to form a coalition government with the Free Democratic Party (FDP). In the 2013 federal election, Merkel's CDU won a landslide victory with 41.5% of the vote and formed the second grand alliance with the SPD, when the FDP lost all its representation in the BundesTag.
In the 2017 federal election, Merkel led the CDU to become the largest party for the fourth time, and was sworn in for a joint record fourth term as Chancellor on 14 March 2018. In foreign policy, Merkel has emphasized international cooperation in the context of both the European Union and NATO and to strengthen international economic relations. In 2007, Merkel served as president of the European Council. She has served as senior G7 leader since 2014, and previously from 2011 to 2012. In 2014, she was the longest serving head of government in the European Union.