What is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)?
NATO is a military alliance, established with the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. The full name of NATO is North Atlantic Treaty Organization. NATO also known as "The (North) Atlantic Alliance", NATO is headquartered in Brussels (Belgium). The organization has created a system of collective security, under which member states will agree to cooperate in the event of an external attack. Lord Isme became the first Secretary General of NATO.
|Full name of NATO||North Atlantic Treaty Organization|
|Establishment of nato||4 April 1949, Washington, D.C., United States|
|Total number of member states in NATO||30|
|NATO Headquarters||Boulevard Leopold III Brussels, (Belgium)|
|First Secretary General of NATO||General Hastings Ismay (United Kingdom)|
|Current Secretary General of NATO||Jens Stoltenberg (Norway) - posted since 1 October 2014|
|Last member to join NATO||Republic of North Macedonia (27 March 2020)|
|last NATO conference||3 December 2019 to 4 December 2019 (London)|
The main objectives of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):
- To act as a barrier during the invasion of Europe.
- To stop the so-called expansion of the Soviet Union into Western Europe and to prepare the people mentally in case of war.
- To provide a protective umbrella for European nations through their programs for military and economic development.
- To organize the countries of Western Europe into a single thread.
- Thus the purpose of NATO was to prevent the spread of communism to protect the "free world" and, if possible, to be America's commitment to defeating communism.
History of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):
After the Second World War, there was an intense development of the Cold War between the two superpowers, the Soviet Union and America, which had descended on the world stage. Under the Speech and the Truman Doctrine, when it was said to stop communist spread, in return, the Soviet Union violated international treaties and blocked Berlin in 1948. In this sequence, it was considered that an organization should be created whose combined forces could protect their member countries. In March 1948 Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg signed the Treaty of Brussels. Its purpose was collective military assistance and socio-economic cooperation.
At the same time, the treaties promised that if any of them were attacked in Europe, all the remaining four countries would give all possible help. Against this background, keeping in mind the siege of Berlin and the growing Soviet influence, America took the situation into its own hands and taking the first very powerful step in the direction of military faction, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization i.e. NATO was established on April 4, 1949 in Washington. Had it.
The North Atlantic Treaty was signed by 12 countries, subject to the provisions of the regional organizations in Article 15 of the Charter of the United Nations. These countries were France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Britain, Netherlands, Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal and the United States of America. Before the end of the Cold War, Greece, Turkey, West Germany, Spain also became members, and even after the Cold War, the number of NATO members continued to expand. Member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): On 4 April 1949, the foreign ministers of 12 countries including Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States of America The foreign ministers of the countries were involved.
They all signed the North Atlantic Treaty (also known as the Washington Treaty) at the Divisional Auditorium in Washington, D.C. Some of the foreign ministers who signed the treaty were heavily involved in NATO work at a later stage in their careers. Below are the names of all NATO member states:
|Country name||Membership Year|
|United States of America||1949|
List of all Secretary Generals of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):
|Name of general secretary||Duration||Related Countries|
|General Hastings Ismay||24 March 1952 to 16 May 1957||United Kingdom|
|Paul-Henry Spak||16 May 1957 to 21 April 1961||Belgium|
|Dirk Steiker||21 April 1961 to 1 August 1964||Netherlands|
|Manlio brosio||1 August 1964 to 1 October 1971||Italy|
|Joseph Lun||1 October 1971 to 25 June 1984||Netherlands|
|Peter Carrington||1 July 1988 to 13 August 1994||Germany|
|Sergio balzanino||13 August 1994 to 17 October 1994||Italy (Deputy Secretary General of NATO)|
|Willie Claes||17 October 1994 to 20 October 1995||Belgium|
|Sergio balzanino||20 October 1995 to 5 December 1995||Italy (Deputy Secretary General of NATO)|
|Javier Solana||5 December 1995 to 14 October 1999||Spain|
|George Robertson||14 October 1999 to 17 December 2003||United Kingdom|
|Alessandro Minuto-Rizzo||17 December 2003 to 1 January 2004||Italy (Deputy Secretary General of NATO)|
|Jaap De Hope Schaefer||1 January 2004 to 1 August 2009||Netherlands|
|Anders Fogg Rasmussen||1 August 2009 to 1 October 2014||Denmark|
|Jens stoltenberg||Posted since 1 October 2014||Norway|
The main reasons for the establishment of NATO
- After World War II, the Soviet Union refused to withdraw its forces from Eastern Europe and attempted to establish a communist regime there. America took advantage of this and gave an anti-communist slogan. and warned European countries of the communist threat. As a result, European countries agreed to create an organization that would protect them.
- During the Second World War, Western European countries suffered a great deal. Therefore, America was a great hope for their economic reconstruction, so they supported the establishment of NATO by America.
NATO Structure Parts:
NATO is headquartered in Brussels. Its structure is made up of 4 parts:-
- Parishad: This is the highest organ of the Naats. It is made up of the ministers of the state. Its ministerial meeting is held once a year. The main responsibility of the council is to implement the clauses of the agreement.
- Sub-Council: This council is a council of diplomatic representatives appointed by the member countries of NATO. They deal with matters of common interest related to the organization of NATO.
- Defense Committee: It consists of defense ministers of NATO member countries. Its main function is to discuss defence, strategy and military related topics in NATO and non-NATO countries.
- Sainik Committee: Its main function is to advise the NATO Council and its Defense Committee. It consists of the Chiefs of Army Staff of the member countries.
Impact on other NATO countries:
- The NATO organization, created under the protection of Western Europe, gave impetus to the integration of Western Europe. It established great cooperation among its members.
- For the first time in history, the powers of Western Europe accepted the permanent submission of some of their armies to an international military organization.
- By assuring military security to European countries dilapidated by the Second World War, the US gave both countries such a security zone, under which they could fearlessly complete their economic and military development programs.
- The formation of NATO ended the US segregation policy and could no longer remain neutral on European issues.
- The formation of NATO fueled the Cold War. The Soviet Union saw this in opposition to communism and in response tried to establish its influence in Eastern European countries by forming a military organization called the Warsaw Pact.
- NATO also influenced US foreign policy. Was not ready to listen to any debate against her foreign policy and increased US intervention in Europe through NATO.
- The excessive US intervention in Europe forced European countries to think that the socio-economic problems of Europe should be solved from a European point of view. This approach paved the way for the formation of the "European Community".
NATO summit list:
|1957||16-19 December||Paris, France||President René Coty|
|1974||26-June||Brussels, Belgium||Prime Minister Leo Tindemens|
|1975||29–30 May||Brussels, Belgium||Prime Minister Leo Tindemens|
|1977||10–11 May||London, United Kingdom||Prime Minister James Callaghan|
|1978||30-31 May||Washington D.C., United States||President Jimmy Carter|
|1982||10-June||Bonn, West Germany||Chancellor Helmut Schmidt|
|1985||21 November||Brussels, Belgium||Prime Minister Wilfried Martens|
|1988||March 2-3||Brussels, Belgium||Prime Minister Wilfried Martens|
|1989||29–30 May||Brussels, Belgium||Prime Minister Wilfried Martens|
|1989||04-December||Brussels, Belgium||Prime Minister Wilfried Martens|
|1990||5-6 July||London, United Kingdom||Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher|
|1991||November 7-8||Rome, Italy||Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti|
|1994||10–11 January||Brussels, Belgium||Prime Minister Jean-Luc Dehaene|
|1997||May 27||Paris, France||President Jacques Chirac|
|1997||8-9 July||Madrid, Spain||Prime Minister Jose María Azarán|
|1999||April 23-25||Washington D.C., United States||President Bill Clinton|
|2001||13-June||Brussels, Belgium||Secretary General George Robertson|
|2002||May 28||Rome, Italy||Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi|
|2002||21–22 November||Praha, Czech||Republic Prime Minister Vladimir Spidala|
|2004||28-29 June||Istanbul, Turkey||Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoan|
|2005||22-February||Brussels, Belgium||Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt|
|2006||28-29 November||Riga, Latvia||Prime Minister Agers Klavitis|
|2008||April 2-4||Bucharest, Romania||President Treyan Boisecu|
|2009||April 2–3||Strasbourg, French||President Nicolas Sarkozy|
|2009||April 2–3||Kiehl, Germany||Chancellor Angela Merkel|
|2010||November 19–20||Lisbon, Portugal||Prime Minister José Sorcrates|
|2012||May 20–21||Chicago, United States||President Barack Obama|
|2014||4-5 September||Newport and Cardiff, United Kingdom||Prime Minister David Cameron|
|2016||8-9 July||Warsaw, Poland||President Andrzej Duda|
|2017||25 May||Brussels, Belgium||Prime Minister Charles Michel|
|2018||11–12 July||Brussels, Belgium||Secretary General Jan Stoltenberg|
|2019||3–4 December||Watford, United Kingdom||Prime Minister Boris Johnson|
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