**Important units of measurement and measurement and their types**

In the context of measurement, a unit or unit is a definite quantity of a physical quantity which is defined and accepted by convention or/and rule and which is used as a standard for the measurement of that physical quantity. Any other quantity of that physical quantity is expressed as a multiple of this 'unit'. For example, length is a physical quantity. 'Meter' is a unit of length which is equal to a certain predetermined distance.

When we say that a certain distance is '47 metres' it means that the said distance is 47 times of 1 metre. Defining units, agreeing on them, making practical use of them, etc., have played a very important role since ancient times. It was common practice to have different systems of units in different places and times. But now a global standard system is in existence which is called 'International System of Units (SI)'.

**History of Measurement:**

Measurement has a very important role in human life. It is very difficult to say when and how the measurement method would have been invented, but it can be estimated that along with the intellectual development of man, the tradition of mutual exchange must have started and for this transaction, he needed measurement. Would have fallen Humans have been using measurement methods since prehistoric times. Units of measurement are probably one of the oldest things ever invented by humans because even primitive societies needed (improvised) measurements for various purposes.

**Important units of measurement of length:**

- 1 micrometer (μm): 1000 nanometer (nm)
- 1 millimeter (km): 1000 micrometer (μm)
- 1 centimeter (cm): 10 milliliters (ml)
- 1 meter (m): 100 centimeters (cm)
- 1 decameter(dm): 10m(m)
- 1 hectometer (hm): 10 decameter (dm)
- 1 kilometer (km): 10 hectometer (hm)
- 1 Megameter (mm): 1000 Kilometers (km)
- 1 nautical mile (M, NM, or nmi): 1852 meter volume (mq)

**Important units of measurement of area:**

- 1 square foot: 144 squares
- 1 square yard: 9 square feet
- 1 acre: 4840 square yards
- 1 square mile: 640 acres

**Important units of measurement of distance:**

- 1 Feet (ft): 12 Inch (Inch)
- 1 mile: 1760 yard (yd)
- 1 furlong (yd): 10 chains
- 1 yard (yards - yd): 3 feet (ft)
- 1 mile: 8 furlongs (yd)

**Important units of measurement of quantity:**

- 1 centiliter (cL): 10 milliliters (ml)
- 1 deciliter (dl): 10 centiliter (cL)
- 1 liter (l): 10 deciliter (dl)
- 1 decaliter (L): 10 liters (l)
- 1 hectoliter: 10 decaliter(L)
- 1 kilo liter: 10 hectoliter area

**Important units of measurement of load:**

- 1 gram: 1000 mg
- 1 decagram: 10 grams
- 1 hectogram: 10 decagrams
- 1 kilogram: 10 hectograms
- 1 quintal: 100 kg
- 1 ton: 1000 kgs

**Important units for measuring beam and timber:**

- 40 cubic feet unhewn timber: 1 ton
- 50 cubic feet of wood: 1 ton
- 42 cubic feet of wood: 1 shipping ton
- 108 cubic feet of wood: 1 stack
- 128 cubic feet of wood: 1 card

**Important units of wool measurement:**

- 7 pounds: 1 clove
- 2 cloves: 1 stone
- 2 stone: 1 tod
- 61/2 Toad: 1 way
- 2 way: 1 sack
- 12 sac: 1 last
- 240 pounds: 1 pack

**Important units of measurement of weight:**

- 1 grain: 0.000064799 kg
- 1 oz: 0.0283495 kg
- 1 pound: 0.4535924 kilograms
- 1 Hundredweight: 50.802 kg
- 1 Ton: 1016.05 Kg

**Important units of astronomical measurement:**

- Astronomical Unit: 9,28,97,400 miles
- Light Year: 59,00,00,00,00,000 miles
- parsec: 3.259 light years

**Units of Mass:**

- 1 teragram: 109kg
- 1 gigagram: 106 kg
- 1 megagram: 103 kg
- 1 Ton: 103kg
- 1 quintal: 102 kg
- 1 picogram: 10-15kg
- 1 mg: 10-6 kg
- 1 decigram: 10-4 kg
- 1 slug: 10.57 kg
- 1 Metric Ton: 1000kg
- 1 oz: 28.35 g
- 1 pound: 16 oz (453.52 g)
- 1 kg: 2.205 lbs
- 1 carat: 205.3 mg
- 1 megagram: 1 ton
- 1 gram: 10-3kg

**Important units for measuring capacitance:**

- 4 gills: 1 point
- 2 points: 1 quart
- 4 quarts: 1 gallon
- 2 gallons: 1 peck
- 4 peck: 1 bushel
- 3 bushels: 1 bag
- 5 bushels: 1 sack
- 8 bushels: 1 quarter
- 5 quarters: 1 load
- 2 loads: 1 last
- 36 bushels: 1 chaldron

A bushel of wheat weighs on average 60 lbs, barley about 47 lbs and oats 40 lbs.

** Important units of circular and angular measures:**

- 60 Thirds: 1 Second (²)
- 60 seconds: 1 minute (¢)
- 60 minutes: 1 degree (°)
- 30 degree: 1 sine
- 45 degrees: 1 octant
- 60 degrees: 1 sextant
- 90 degrees: 1 quadrant or right angle

The circumference of any circle is 3.1416 times its diameter.

**Important units of measurement for cotton yarn:**

- 120 yards: 1 skein
- 7 Lachhis: 1 Gundi (hank)
- 18 Guns: 1 Spindle

**Important units for measuring electricity**

- Volt: The amount of power required to pass 1 ampere of current through a 1 ohm resistance is called 1 volt.
- Ohm: is the resistance of a circuit in which a one-volt electric current produces one ampere of current.
- Megohm: 10^6 Ohm
- Ampere: The current that produces a 1 volt potential difference across a one ohm resistance.
- Coulomb: The amount of electricity obtained by flowing one ampere current for one second.
- 1 Watt: 1 Joule
- 746 watts: one horsepower per second
- 1 kW: 1,000 watts: 1.5 hp

**Important Units of Measurements of Linear**

- 8 barley grains: 1 inch
- 2 1/2 inches: 1 nail
- 3 inches: 1 palm
- 7.02 inches: 1 link
- 9 inches: 1 span (span or quarter)
- 18 inches: 1 arm (cubit)
- 30 inches: 1 pace
- 37.2 inches: 1 Scottish ell
- 45.0 inches: 1 English ell
- 5 foot: 1 geometrical pace
- 6 foot: 1 fathom
- 608 feet: 1 cable
- 10 Cable: 1 nautical mile
- 6,080 feet: 1 navigable mile
- 6,087 feet: 1 geographic mile
- 22 yards or 5 balls: 1 chain
- 100 Links: 1 Chain
- 10 chains: 1 furlong
- 80 Chains: 1 Mile
- 1 knot: The speed of the sailor M.P.

**Important units of measurement for linen yarn:**

- 300 yards: 1 cut
- 2 cuts: 1 heer
- 6 Heer: 1 Hasp
- 4 Hasp: 1 Spindle

**Important Units of Measurement of Numbers:**

- 12 units: 1 dozen
- 12 dozen: 1 gurus
- 20 units: 1 score
- 5 bundles, codices, or 100 units: 1 hundred

**Important Units of Measurement of Nautical Measurement (Distance):**

- 6 foot: 1 fathom
- 100 fathoms: 1 cable length
- 1,000 fathoms: 1 knot
- 3 knots: 1 nautical league
- 60 nautical miles: 1 degree longitude at the equator
- 360 degree: 1 circle

**Important units of measuring papers:**

- 24 sheets: 1 quire
- 20 Shaft: 1 ream
- 516 Tav: 1 printer's ream
- 2 reams: 1 bundle
- 5 bundles: 1 bale

**Important units of measurement of surveyor:**

- 7.92 inches: 1 link
- 100 Links: 22 Yards: One Chain
- 80 Chains: 1760 Yards, OR: Miles

**Important units of measurement of temperature:**

**Centigrade:**In this measurement, the freezing point of water is considered to be zero and the boiling point of water is considered to be 100 °C, the temperature of blood in the body is 36.8 °C.**Ryumar:**In this measurement the freezing point of water is considered to be zero and the boiling point of water is assumed to be 80 degrees. It is commonly used in Germany.**Fahrenheit:**In this the freezing point is 32 degrees and the boiling point of water is considered to be 212 degrees. This measurement is especially used in Great Britain and North America.

**Important units of measurement of time:**

- 60 seconds: 1 minute
- 60 minutes: 1 hour
- 24 hrs: 1 day
- 7 days: 1 week
- 4 weeks: 1 month
- 13 lunar month: 1 year
- 12 calendar months: 1 year
- 365 days: 1 ordinary year
- 366 days: 1 leap year
- 3651/4 days: 1 Julian year
- 365 days 5 h 48 mi 51 to 0: 1 solar year
- 100 years: 1 cent year or centenary

**Important units for measuring length and capacitance:**

- 1 inch: 0.0254 m
- 1 foot: 0.3048 m
- 1 yard: 0.9144 meters
- 1 mile: 1609.344 meters
- 1 Imperial Gallon: 4.54596 liters
- 10 ml: 1 centiliter
- 10 centiliters: 1 deciliter
- 10 deciliters: 1 liter
- 10 liters: 1 decaliter
- 10 decaliter: 1 hectoliter
- 10 hectoliters: 1 kiloliter
- 1 liter: 1 3/4 points

**Important units of measurement of area:**

- 1 centire or 1 square meter: 1.196033 square yards
- 10 centire: 1 decier
- 10 decires: 1 air
- 10 Air: 1 Decair
- 10 decaAir: 1 hectare
- 100 hectares: 1 square kilometer
- 1 hectare: 2 acres

**Important units of measurement of solid or cube:**

- 1 centistere: 610.240515 cubic meters
- 1 desistier: 3.531658 cubic feet
- 1 tier: 1.307954 Dhangaj
- 10 centstier: 1 desistier
- 10 desistiers: 1 steer or cubic mile
- 10 tiers: 1 decaster

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