Major catalysts of science, their types and characteristics
Meaning or definitions of trigger:
A catalyst is a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction, but itself remains unchanged at the end of the reaction, so it can be reused. In most reactions, the catalyst speeds up the reaction. Such catalysts are called positive catalysts; But there are some catalysts which slow down the rate of chemical reaction. Such catalysts are called negative catalysts. Catalysts play an important role in the manufacture of industrially important chemicals, as their use increases the rate of reaction, resulting in economic benefits in many ways and faster production. Therefore, a lot of money and human labor has been invested for research in the field of induction.
Following are the main characteristics of the catalyst:
- At the end of the action the catalyst remains unchanged. No matter what changes occur in its physical organization, there is no difference in its chemical organization.
- Only a small amount of the catalyst is sufficient. This characteristic of the catalyst is dependent on the fact that it remains unchanged at the end of the action. However, in some processes in which the catalyst forms a secondary temporary compound, higher amounts of the catalyst are required.
- Catalyst catalyzes both direct and opposite reactions equally in reversible reactions, so the presence of catalyst does not change the equilibrium state of the reaction, only the time of equilibrium changes.
- Trigger can initiate a new action. Although Wilhelm Ostwald was the first to express the view that a catalyst cannot start a new action, yet modern scientists are of the opinion that the catalyst can also start a new action.
- In every chemical reaction, only a specific catalyst can act. So far it has not been possible for scientists to use a single catalyst for all chemical reactions. It is not necessary that the catalyst of one action should also catalyze another action.
Types of activator actions:
Almost all catalyzed actions can be divided into two parts: (1) isomer catalyzed actions (2) isomerically catalyzed actions (heteromeric catalysis).
- Isomeristic Catalyst: In these reactions, the catalyst, the reactant and the reactant are all present in the same state. For example, in the Vishma method of making sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid is formed by the combination of sulfur dioxide, steam and oxygen and this reaction is catalyzed by nitric oxide. In this reaction, the reactant, catalyst and byproduct remain in this gaseous state.
- Heterogeneous Catalyst: In these reactions the catalyst, reactant and byproduct are present in different states. For example, in Haber's method of making ammonia, ferric oxide catalyzes the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen. Hydrogenation of vegetable oils in the presence of fine nickel is another example of such actions.
Physical and Chemical Reactions:
A new substance is formed due to the change of one substance into another. For example - curdling of milk, breaking of glass. These changes in matter can be divided into two parts.
- Physical change
- Chemical changes
Physical Change: The change that occurs in a substance in which only its physical state changes and there is no change in its chemical properties and state. called physical change. Eg:- dissolving of sugar in water, breaking of glass, freezing of water etc. A physical change results in a change in the colour, form, shape, perimeter of matter. This does not create any new substance. The original state of matter can usually be obtained by doing the reverse of the reaction. Chemical Change: A change in a substance in which a new substance is obtained which is completely different in chemical and physical properties from the original substance. called chemical change. Eg:- Rusting of iron, curdling of milk etc.
List of major catalysts and functions of science:
|Industry or process
|Haber method of making ammonia gas
|Making artificial ghee from vegetable oils
|In the process of making ether from alcohol
|In contact method of making sulfuric acid
|Deacon method of making chlorine gas
|Making ethyl alcohol from glucose
|Manufacture of Vinegar from Sugarcane Sugar
|In the lead chamber method of making sulfuric acid
|Oxides of nitrogen
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