Major causes of industrial revolution, impact and consequences on India and the world:
What is the Industrial Revolution called?
The rapid industrial progress in Britain and later in Europe between 1780 and 1820 resulted in revolutionary changes in the social, economic, political and ideological spheres. Its effect was not limited to England but also affected other countries of Europe. In this way a new era started in the world and in the year 1882 AD, Arnold Tynby called it 'Industrial Revolution'. In this era, machines powered by the power of water and steam engines were invented, due to which factories started being established. With the creation of factories, the domestic method of commodity-making became looser and weaker. In these factories the laborers were hired.
Due to the establishment of factories and the abundance of laborers, new cities began to be established. People from villages and cities started coming to work in the factories of the cities to earn money. Large number of factories and large number of laborers led to mass production of consumable goods. Due to the production of more and more goods, new and faster means of transport developed to carry the produced goods from one place to another. The impact of this Industrial Revolution was widespread and the Industrial Revolution resulted in far-reaching changes in all social, cultural and political spheres. In the 19th century it spread throughout Western Europe and North America.
Major causes of industrial revolution:
- Agricultural revolution
- Population explosion
- End of trade restrictions
- Colonial raw materials and markets
- Capital and new technology
- Renaissance and Enlightenment
- Factory system
Major inventions and important facts during the Industrial Revolution:-
- The Industrial Revolution started in England.
- The Industrial Revolution in England started with the cotton textile industry.
- From Manchester to Worsley, an engineer named Brintley (in 1761 AD) built a canal.
- The steam engine was used by George Stephenson to carry coal from the mines to the ports by rail.
- During the Industrial Revolution, England's rival was Germany.
- The second stage of the process of making steel from iron ore is steelmaking, the rise of steelmaking during the Industrial Revolution.
- The set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charges is called electricity. The rise of electricity generation also occurred during the Industrial Revolution. There are many well-known phenomena associated with electricity such as lightning, static electricity, electromagnetic induction, and electric current.
- The fast moving shutter was invented by John (in 1733 AD).
- The spinning mule was invented by Crampton (1776 AD).
- Cart Wright invented the horse-drawn loom.
- The safety lamp was invented by Humphry Davy (1815 AD).
Effects of Industrial Revolution:
The Industrial Revolution had a great impact on human society. There were two famous revolutions in the history of human society which most affected human history. One revolution took place at the time when humans left hunting and took up the profession of animal husbandry and agriculture in the later stone age, then the second revolution is when in the modern era, business was given priority leaving agriculture.
The mode of production was deeply affected by this industrial revolution. In the field of labor the place of man was taken by the machine. There was quantitative and qualitative change in production. There was a huge increase in wealth. International trade also increased. The expansion of colonial imperialism was also a result of the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of new classes.
- Extraordinary increase in production: In factories, goods began to be produced in larger quantities faster and more efficiently. Trade activities intensified to transport these industrial products to the internal and foreign markets, making the industrialized countries wealthy. The economy of England became industrialized. There industrial capitalism was born. Industrial and trading corporations expanded. These corporations started selling the securities of their capital to expand themselves. Thus the extraordinary growth of production gave birth to a new economic method.
- Urbanization: The changing economic scenario led to the decline of cottage industries in the villages. As a result, people started running towards the cities in search of employment because now where big industries were established, there were opportunities for employment. Naturally the process of urbanization accelerated. The new cities mostly developed near industrial centers that were close to places with wide availability of iron, coal and water. Cities emerged as trading centers, production centers, port towns. The process of urbanization was not limited only to England but also extended to France, Germany, Austria, Italy etc. Thus cities became the basis of the economy.
- Economic imbalance: The industrial revolution led to economic imbalance as a national problem. The gap of economic inequality between developed and backward countries continued to deepen. The industrialized nations began to openly exploit the underdeveloped nations. The era of economic imperialism began. This strengthened the colonial imperial system at the international level. After the Industrial Revolution, the interdependence of nations increased greatly, due to which the events happening in one country started directly affecting the other country. As a result, the era of international economic boom and recession began.
- Development of Banking and Monetary System: The Industrial Revolution changed the entire economic landscape. The role of bank and money became important in industry and trade. Transactions through banks became easier, the use of checks and drafts increased. There was also development in the field of currency. Paper currency was used in place of metal.
- Destruction of Cottage Industries: The negative consequence of the Industrial Revolution was the destruction of cottage industries. But the point to be understood here is that this negative result was not on the industrialized countries but on the colonial countries. In fact, in industrialized countries, people who were unemployed due to the destruction of cottage industries got an alternative in the form of new industries. Whereas in the colonies this alternative employment could not be arranged. This can be understood in the context of India.
- Free Trade: As a result of the Industrial Revolution, the policy of free trade was adopted in place of protectionism. Under the Charter Act of 1813, England promoted a policy of free trade by ending the trading monopoly of the EIC.
- Increase in Population: The Industrial Revolution made population growth possible. In fact, technological use in the agricultural sector has fulfilled the food requirement by increasing the production of food grains. On the other hand, by increasing the production of food grains in the areas of demand through improved means of transport, the food requirement was fulfilled. On the other hand, through improved means of transport, it became possible to supply food grains in the areas of demand. Improved nutrition and improved health and pharmaceutical science led to an increase in the newborn and the average life expectancy. As a result the death rate decreased.
- Rise of New Social Classes: The Industrial Revolution gave birth to mainly three new classes. The first capitalist class, which included merchants and capitalists. The second middle class included factory inspectors, brokers, contractors, engineers, scientists, etc. The third working class who produced with their labor and skill.
- Decline in human relations: The traditional, emotional human relations were replaced by economic relations. Malin was neither acquainted nor wanted to be acquainted with the labor on which the industrialists were getting rich. The machines and technology used in the industries made the human also a part of the machine.
- Decline in Moral Values: Moral values declined in the newly industrialized society. The promotion of alcohol and gambling increased with material progress. After working for a long time, the practice of intoxication increased among the workers to overcome the exhaustion. Not only this, prostitution started spreading in industrial centers. With the rise of consumerist tendencies, corruption and crimes were encouraged.
- Decline in urban life: Due to excessive growth of population in cities, the lower strata had to pay for lack of housing, food, drinking water etc. Due to overpopulation, kutcha settlements started expanding around industrial centers where filth used to live.
- Cultural Changes: The Industrial Revolution brought about a change in the old ways of living, dress, customs, art-literature, means of entertainment. In place of traditional education system, employable technical and managerial education developed.
- Child Labour: The Industrial Revolution promoted child labor and took away their “childhood” from children. The whole world is facing this problem today.
- Birth of Women's Movements: The Industrial Revolution gave rise to the need of workers which could not be met by men only. Therefore, the participation of women took place in the working class. Now the demands of rights also started rising from the side of women, consciousness was awakened in them.
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