History, causes, consequences and important facts of World War II:
History of World War II:
World War II lasted from 1 September 1939 to 2 September 1945. About 70 countries participated in World War II. In this war the armies were divided into two parts. On one side was the Allied Forces and on the other hand the Axis Powers. About 10,000,0000 (ten crore) soldiers of the world took part in this great war. About 5 to 7 crore people lost their lives in this horrific war.
World War II was fought in Europe, the Pacific, the Atlantic, Southeast Asia, China, the Middle East, and Mediterranean Northern Africa. Generals and Commanders of the Armies of the Second World War:.
- Allied Forces: Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek, Charles de Gaulle.
- Axis Nations Army: Adolf Hitler, Hirohiton, Benito Mussolin.
Reasons for the start of World War II:
The beginning of the Second or Second World War is known on 01 September 1939, when Germany attacked Poland and after that when France declared war on Germany and England and other Commonwealth countries also ratified it. Germany invaded Poland in 1939 with the aim of creating a large empire in Europe. But as this war spread outside Europe to Africa, Asia, especially with Japan and America joining it, it took the shape of a world war.
Let us know about other important reasons related to World War II: -
Treaty of Versailles: The beginning of World War II was in the Treaty of Versailles itself. The German public could never forget the humiliating treatment done by the Allies to Germany. Germany was forced to sign this treaty. According to the terms of the treaty, a large part of the German Empire was snatched from him by the Allies and divided amongst them, he was made military and financially crippled.
Due to which the Germans considered the Treaty of Versailles a national stigma. The feeling of strong vengeance towards the Allies began to awaken in them. Hitler took power in his own hands by raising this sentiment further. As soon as he came to power, he razed the Treaty of Versailles and started the Second World War by adopting a very aggressive policy.
Rise of Dictatorship Powers: After the First World War, dictatorial powers emerged in Europe. Mussolini became dictators in Italy and Hitler (Adolf Hitler) in Germany. In the First World War, Italy fought on the side of the Allies but was participating in the Paris Peace Conference in which it did not gain much. This created a feeling of discontent in Italy, taking advantage of this, Mussolini established Fascism and concentrated all the power in his hands.
He became the dictator of Italy. The situation was the same in Germany as well. Hitler founded Nazism and became the dictator of Germany. Both Mussolini and Hitler adopted an aggressive policy, both renouncing the membership of the League of Nations and increasing their power. His policies made World War II inevitable.
Imperialist Tendency: Imperialism became one of the biggest and major cause of World War II. Every imperial power wanted to increase its power and wealth by expanding its empire. This started competition in the imperialist nation. This attitude increased in the 1930s. Aggressive actions increased. In 1931, Japan invaded China and occupied Manchuria. Similarly, in 1935, Italy occupied Ethiopia. In 1935, Germany conquered the Rhineland and in 1938 Austria annexed it to the German Empire.
Hitler and Mussolini provided military aid to General Franco during the civil war in Spain. Franco took power in Spain. European Combination: Fearing the growing power of Germany, European nations started forming factions for their security. It was initiated by France. He formed an anti-German faction of nations surrounding Germany. In response, Germany and Italy formed a separate faction. Japan also joined in this.
Thus Germany became a threesome of Italy and Japan. This nation came to be known as the axis nation. France, England, America and the Soviet Union became a separate group, which became known as the Allies.
Status of India in World War II: India was a slave of the British even during the Second World War. Therefore, India also declared war against Nazi Germany in 1939. In the Second World War, more than two million soldiers were sent from India's side. The soldiers of our country fought on the side of the British and their allied forces. In this destructive war, the soldiers of India were sent to fight in every corner of the world. Like in the first world war, in the second world war also our princely states had given a large amount of money to the British army.
In 1939, during the Second World War, the British Indian Army consisted of only 200,000 people. By the end of the war, it had become the largest volunteer army in history, with the number of people employed increased to over 2.5 million by August 1945.
Serving as divisions of infantry, armored and inexperienced air force, they fought in the continents of Africa, Europe and Asia.
What were the results of World War II?
- The Allies formed the United Nations to attempt to maintain international peace. It officially came into existence on 24 October 1945.
- In Europe, the continent was essentially divided between the Western and Soviet regions by the so-called Iron Screen, which passed through and divided subordinate Austria and Allied subordinate Germany.
- In Asia, the United States captured Japan and settled the islands east of its western Pacific.
- The Soviet Union took control of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.
- Japanese-ruled Korea was divided and annexed between the two powers.
- Tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union quickly developed into the formation of the US-led NATO and Soviet-led Warsaw Pact military alliance, and the Cold War broke out between them.
- The People's Republic of China was established on the mainland while nationalist forces established their power in Taiwan.
- In Greece, a civil war broke out between the communist forces and the Anglo-American-backed imperialist forces, in which the imperialist forces were victorious.
- In Korea, a war broke out between South Korea, which was supported by the Western powers, and North Korea, which was supported by the Soviet Union and China.
Situation of India during World War II:
During the Second World War, India was a British colony. So officially India also declared war against Nazi Germany in 1939. The British Raj sent more than two million soldiers to the war who fought against the Axis powers under British command. Apart from this, all the princely states provided huge amount of money to the British for the war.
The Muslim League supported the British war effort, while the Indian National Congress sought to make India independent first, then the Congress would aid Britain. Britain did not accept the demand of the Congress, yet the Congress continued to work undeclaredly in favor of Britain and against the Axis countries like Germany. Much later in August 1942, the Congress announced the Quit India Movement, which was not effective at all. Meanwhile, under the leadership of Subhas Chandra Bose, Japan established an army of Indian prisoners of war, which was named the Azad Hind Fauj.
Under the leadership of Netaji, this army fought against the British and also liberated some part of India from the British. At the time of World War II, in 1943, due to a great famine in Bengal, lakhs of people died of starvation.
Important facts related to the Second World War are as follows:
- World War II was fought for 6 years.
- World War II started on 1 September 1939 AD.
- This war ended on 2 September 1945 AD.
- 61 countries took part in World War II.
- The immediate cause of the war was Germany's invasion of Poland.
- During World War II, German General Erwin Rommel was named Desert Fox.
- The Munich Agreement was concluded in September 1938.
- Germany violated the Treaty of Versailles.
- Germany broke the Treaty of Versailles in 1935 AD.
- The civil war in Spain started in 1936 AD.
- Speran became the first victim of Italy and Germany jointly.
- Germany's plan to attack the Soviet Union was called the Barbosa plan.
- Italy entered World War II from Germany on 10 June 1940 AD.
- America joined World War II on 8 September 1941 AD.
- At the time of World War II (2nd world war ke karan in hindi), the President of
- America was Franklin D. Roosevelt.
- At this time the Prime Minister of England was Winston Churchill.
- The Treaty of Versailles is known as the Treaty of Versailles.
- The credit for Germany's defeat in World War II goes to Russia.
- America used a nuclear weapon on Japan on August 6, 1945.
- Nuclear weapons were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
- Japan was the last country to be defeated by the Allies in World War II.
- The biggest contribution of the Second World War (2nd world war in Hindi) in the international arena is the establishment of the United Nations.