Worlds Major alloys and Their Uses

World's Major Alloys, Uses and Their Components

What is Metal?

According to chemistry,

metals

are those elements that readily give up

electrons

to form cations and form metallic bonds with atoms of metals. Depending on the electronic model, metals are a lattice of cations covered by electrons.

Types of Metals:

There are two types of metals

  1. Ferrous Metal -

    All those metals in which the basic metal iron remains and the amount of carbon varies, is called ferrous metal. For example iron, steel etc.
  2. Non-Ferrous Metal -

    All those metals in which iron particles are not found, are called non-ferrous metals. For example- copper, tin, aluminum etc.

What is an alloy called?

Definition of Alloy: An alloy is a partial or complete solid-solution of two or more metallic elements. Steel is an alloy. Often the properties of alloys are different from those of the components that make up that alloy. Steel is stronger than iron. Bronze, brass, solder etc. are alloys.

Alloys and their uses:

All alloys are generally divided into ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. When iron is the base metal in an alloy, it is called iron and when the base metal is any other metal, then it is called a non-ferrous alloy.

The following are the main non-ferrous alloys:

  • Aluminimum-Brass: Its composition consists of copper, zinc and aluminum, which are 71-55, 26-42 and 1-6 percent respectively. It is used in the manufacture of propellers for ships and aircraft.
  • Aluminum-Bronze: It contains 99-89 percent of copper and 1-11 percent of aluminum. It is very hard and corrosion resistant. Its utensils are made.
  • Babit metal: The percentage of tin, antimony and copper in this is 89, 7.3 and 3.7 respectively. Its main use is in making ball bearings.
  • Bell Metal: The percentage of copper and tin in this is 75-80 and 25-20 respectively. Hours are made from this.
  • Brass: It contains copper 73-66 and zinc up to 27-34 percent. It is used for making sheets, tubes and utensils.
  • Carboloy: It is an alloy of tungsten carbide and cobalt. Rubbing and cutting tools are made from it.
  • Constantan: It contains copper 60-45, nickel 40-55, manganese 0-1.4, carbon 0.1 percent and the rest is iron. It is used in making electro-thermometers and thermocouples, because it is a strong resistance to electricity.
  • Delta Metal: It contains copper 56-54, zinc 40-44, iron 0.9-1.3, manganese 0.8-1.4 and lead up to 0.4-1.8 percent. It is as strong as mild steel, but is not easily rusted and destroyed like it. It is used to make ships.
  • Dow Metal: It contains magnesium 90-96, aluminum up to 10-4 percent and manganese in some parts. It is used in making motors and parts of aircraft.
  • German Silver: Contains 55 percent of copper, 25 percent of zinc and 20 percent of nickel. It is used in place of silver in making some things, because the things made from it are similar to silver.
  • Green Gold: It contains up to 75, 11-25 and 13-0 percent of gold, silver and cadmium, respectively. Its ornaments are made.
  • Gun Metal: It contains copper 95-71, tin 0-11, lead 0.-13, zinc 0-5 and iron 0-1.4 percent. Buttons, badges, plates and gears are made from it.
  • Magnalium: It contains aluminum 95-70 percent and magnesium up to 5-30 percent. This alloy is light. It is used in making scientific instruments and weighing scales.
  • Nichrome: It contains nickel 80-54, chromium 10-22, iron up to 4.8-27 percent. It does not corrosion at high temperature and has high electrical resistance. It is used to make heater.
  • Palau: It contains 80 percent gold and 20 percent palladium. It is used in place of platinum in making crucibles and thali.
  • Permalloy: It contains nickel 78, iron 21, cobalt 0.4 percent and the rest manganese, copper, carbon, sulfur and silicon. Telephone wires are made from it.
  • Solder: It contains 97 percent of lead and 33 percent of tin. This metal is used to join two metals together.
  • Shot Metal: Contains 99 percent of lead and 1 percent of arsenic. From this gun wetting and shrapnel are made.
  • Tin Foil: Contains Tin 88, Lead 8, Copper 4 and Antimony 0.5 percent. This foil is wrapped over cigarettes and food items to keep them safe.
  • Wood Metal: This alloy was first made by Ud. It contains Bismuth 50, Lead 25, Tin 13 and Cadmium 13 percent. Its melting point is very low. The plug, which is kept in automatic equipment, extinguishing the fire by sprinkling water, is made of this alloy.

List of important alloys and their constituents:

Mixed metal Names of the constituents
Brass Copper (75 percent) + Zinc (25 percent)
Bell metal Copper (75 percent) + Tin (25 percent)
Bronze Copper (75 percent) + Tin (25 percent)
German silver Copper (50 percent) + Zinc (25 percent) + Nickel (25 percent)
Aluminum bronze Copper (50%) Aluminum (40%) + Iron (10%)
Gun metal Copper (88 percent) + Zinc (2 percent) + Tin (10 percent)
Type (printing) metal Lead (60%) + Antimony (30%) + Tin (10%)
Stainless Steel Iron + Chromium + Nickel
Hindalium Aluminum (91 percent) + Magnesium (9 percent)
Delta metal Copper (55 percent) + Zinc (41 percent) + Iron (4 percent)
Dutch Metal Copper (80 percent) + Zinc (20 percent)
Monal metal Copper (27 percent) + Nickel (70 percent) + Iron (3 percent)
Stitch Tin (67 percent) + Lead (33 percent)
Buds Metal Bismuth (33.5 percent) + Lead (33 percent) + Tin (19 percent) + Cadmium (14.5 percent)
Constantan Copper (60 percent) + Nickel (40 percent)
Mutz metal Copper (60 percent) + Zinc (40 percent)

Frequent Asked Questions (FAQs):

𝒜. zinc and copper

𝒜. copper and tin

𝒜. chromium carbon and iron

𝒜. copper, zinc and nickel

𝒜. Mercury

𝒜. zinc and copper

𝒜. copper and zinc

𝒜. alnico

𝒜. aluminum and magnesium

𝒜. Nicrome

  Last update :  2022-09-13 12:40:46
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