Poverty and Unemployment Alleviation Schemes - Important Social and Economic Programs/Schemes:
What is poverty?
Poverty is a social phenomenon that generally refers to the state of being poor or disadvantaged. Poor is generally considered to be one who is unable to meet the basic needs of his life like food, education, health, housing etc. Such a person is called poor and when this situation occurs in a very large community then it is considered poor.
Types of Poverty:
There are two types of poverty, which are as follows-
- Relative poverty- Relative poverty is based on inequalities of income. Poverty is estimated by comparing the per capita income of different classes, regions and countries in relative poverty. The country or class of people whose standard of living or per capita income level is low, they are considered poor as compared to the people with high per capita income. The subsistence level is measured on the basis of income and consumption expenditure.
- Absolute poverty- Absolute poverty refers to the measurement of poverty keeping in mind the economic condition of a country. Generally in absolute poverty, that person or community is considered poor, whose income is so low that it is not able to meet its minimum maintenance.
Poverty Line or Poverty Line:
Poverty line or poverty line refers to the level of income in which a person is able to fulfill his minimum needs and level of nutrition.
Below Poverty Line (BPL):
Those people are kept below the poverty line, who are completely unable to meet their minimum needs. People whose daily expenditure is less than Rs.45 in cities and Rs.32 in rural areas are considered extremely poor and fall in the category of Below Poverty Line (BPL).
Unemployment is generally called that condition in which there is lack of employment. Today, the only objective of most of the world's economies is to provide gainful employment to as many people as possible, in such a situation, when a large group of youth becomes jobless, then this situation is called unemployment.
What is unemployment eradication campaign?
The aim of the Unemployment Abolition Campaign (UAC) is to provide employment to people according to their abilities and if someone is lacking in abilities, then their abilities will be developed free of cost. Poverty and unemployment alleviation schemes and year of establishment: The shelter insurance scheme has been started on 10 October 2001. The objective of this scheme is to provide security to the people affected due to job loss.
List of major schemes for eradication of poverty and unemployment:
|Antyodaya Anna Yojana
|25 December 2000
|Antyodaya Anna Yojana (A.A.Y) was launched by the Government of India on 25 December 2000. This scheme has been started for one million poor families under the Ministry of Food Supplies and Consumer Affairs. Under this scheme, a provision was made to provide wheat at Rs 2 per kg and paddy at Rs 3 per kg under public distribution scheme to poor families.
|Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana
|25 September 2014
|Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana (D.A.Y.) aims to reduce urban and rural poverty and unemployment by increasing livelihood opportunities through skill development and other measures. Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana was launched on 25 September 2014 under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (HUPA). The Government of India has made a provision of Rs 500 crore for this scheme.
|Annapurna Yojana was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development in the middle of the year 2000 to 2001. Under this scheme, those people have been included, whose age is more than 65 years and who are entitled for old age pension under the National Old Age Pension Scheme, but they are not receiving this pension. Free supply of 10 kg food grains per person per month has been arranged.
|Shelter Insurance Scheme
|10 October 2001
|Aashray Bima Yojana has been started on 10 October 2001. The objective of this scheme is to provide security to the people affected due to job loss.
|Indira Awas Yojana (I.A.Y) or Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (P.M.A.Y)
|1985 and 25 June 2015
|Indira Awas Yojana (I.A.Y) was started in the year 1985 by the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. Under this scheme, the government started the Public Housing Scheme, according to which provision was made to provide equal housing to the people living in rural areas. The name of the scheme was changed to Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (P.M.A.Y) on 25 June 2015.
|Integrated Rural Development Program (I.R.D.P)
|Integrated Rural Development Program (I.R.D.P) was started in the year 1978 by the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Under this scheme, efforts have been made to promote employment and self-employment. Under this, efforts are made to arrange employment and self-employment for the needy people living in rural areas such as rural laborers, backward classes, women, small farmers etc.
|Food for work program
|1977–1978 and relaunched on 14 November 2004
|The Food for Work Program was first started by the Central Government in the middle of the year 1977-1978. This program was again revised and started on 14 November 2004 by the then Government of India. This scheme is completely operated by the Central Government. The objective of the food for work program is to provide food security to the people by creating supplementary employment.
|Janashree Bima Yojana
|Janashree Bima Yojana was started between the year 2000 and 2001 by the Government of India and the Life Insurance Corporation of India. The objective of this scheme is to provide insurance protection to the urban and rural poor.
|Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)
|1 April 1999
|Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (J.G.S.Y) was launched on 1 April 1999 by the Government of India. This scheme is a modified form of the earlier Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY). The objective of this scheme is to create continuous employment and supplementary employment opportunities for the unemployed and poor in rural areas.
|Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (J.R.Y)
|1 April 1989
|Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (J.R.Y) was launched on 1 April 1989. The scheme originated due to the amalgamation of two flagship programmes, the National Rural Employment Program (N.R.E.P) and the Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Program (R.L.E.G.P).
|Jaiprakash Employment Guarantee Scheme (J.P.R.G.Y)
|23 July 2002
|Jaiprakash Employment Guarantee Scheme (J.P.R.G.Y) was launched on 23 July 2002. The objective of Jaiprakash Employment Guarantee Scheme is to provide employment to the unemployed people of the most affected districts of the country.
|Training for Rural Youth Self-Employment (TRYSEM)
|15 August 1979
|Training for Rural Youth Self-Employment (TRYSEM) was started by the Government of India on 15 August 1979 to provide training to rural youth to remove unemployment.
|Rural Regional Women Child Development Scheme (D.W.C.R.A)
|Rural Regional Women Child Development Scheme (D.W.C.R.A) was launched on September 1982. Initially, the only objective of this scheme was 'to provide self-employment to poor women of rural areas', but between the years 1995 and 1996, child rearing activities were also included in the objectives of this scheme. On April 1, 1999, the Dwakara scheme was merged with the Swarna Jayanti Gramin Swarozgar Yojana.
|Ten Lakh Wells Scheme (M.W.S)
|The Ten Lakh Wells Scheme (M.W.S) was launched in 1989.
|Nehru Rozgar Yojana (N.R.Y)
|1 April 1989
|Nehru Rozgar Yojana (N.R.Y) was launched on 1 April 1989 and was revised in the year 1990. The work of operating and controlling this scheme is being done by the Ministry of Urban Development. The objective of this scheme is to provide employment to maximum youth and 30 percent of the employment generated by this scheme is to be made available to women.
|Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana
|The Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana was started by the Government of India in the middle of the year 2000 to 2001. The objective of this scheme is to meet rural needs such as health care, housing, drinking water, roads, primary education and electrification.
|Prime Minister Employment Scheme (P.M.R.Y)
|2 October 1993
|Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Yojana (P.M.R.Y) was started on 2 October 1993 by the Government of India. The main objective of this scheme is to provide easy financial assistance to the educated unemployed youth to start small business in the field of manufacturing.
|Bharat Nirman Program
|16 December 2005
|The Bharat Nirman program was launched on 16 December 2005 by the Government of India. The objective of starting this scheme is to build the infrastructure in India. Under this scheme, development of rural housing, rural electrification, rural roads, drinking water, irrigation and telecommunication is to be done.
|Desert Development Program (D.D.P)
|The Desert Development Program (D.D.P) was started in the middle of the year 1977 to 1978. The objective of the Desert Development Program is to prevent the adverse consequences of desertification of land. 75% of the cost of the scheme will be given by the central government and 25% by the state governments.
|Mahila Swayam Siddhi Yojana
|12 July 2001
|Mahila Swayam Siddhi Yojana was launched on 12 July 2001 by the Government of India. Mahila Swayam Siddhi Yojana aims at social and economic empowerment of women. Indira Mahila Yojana and Mahila Samridhi Yojana have been merged in this scheme.
|National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme or Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (M.N.R.E.G.A)
|7 September 2005 and again 2 October 2009
|The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (N.R.E.G.A) was launched on 7 September 2005 by the Government of India. Under this scheme, a law has been made to provide 100 days of employment in a year to every rural family whose adult members are willing to do unskilled manual work. In this law, a provision has been made to give 30% employment to women. On 2 October 2009, this law was amended and renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (M.N.R.E.G.A).
|National Rural Health Mission (N.R.H.M)
|12 April 2005
|The National Rural Health Mission (N.R.H.M) was launched on 12 April 2005 by the Government of India. The objective of this mission was to improve the expansion, availability, quality and accountability of health services. This mission ended in 2012.
|Employment Assurance Scheme
|2 October 1993
|The Employment Assurance Scheme was launched on 2 October 1993 by the then Prime Minister Shri Narasimha Rao. Under this scheme, a provision was made to provide gainful employment by the government for 100 days to at least 02 people in the family living below the poverty line.
|25 December 2002
|The Swajaldhara program was launched on 25 December 2002 by the then Prime Minister of India Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Under this scheme, provision was made for provision of drinking water in 1 lakh handpumps and 1 lakh primary schools in drought-affected rural areas.
|Golden Jubilee Village Self Employment Scheme (S.G.S.Y)
|1 April 1999
|Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (S.G.S.Y) was launched on 1 April 1999. This plan was created by combining 6 major plans of India. The objective of this scheme is to promote small scale industries and help the rural poor.
|Golden Jubilee Urban Employment Scheme (S.J.S.R.Y)
|1 December 1997
|Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (S.J.S.R.Y) was launched on 1 December 1997. This scheme was created by combining three major schemes Urban Basic Services, Prime Minister's Integrated Urban Poverty Alleviation Scheme and Nehru Rozgar Yojana.
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