The International Criminal Court (ICC) is a permanent intergovernmental organization and international tribunal established by Rome Statute. Whose headquarter is located in the Netherlands. It is the first and only permanent international court with jurisdiction to try individuals for international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes of aggression.
- Total Member Countries – 123
- President – Piotr Hoffmannsky
- Headquarters – The Hague, Netherlands
History of International Criminal Court (ICC)
In June 1989, the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, A.N.R. Robinson brought forward the idea of a permanent international criminal court by proposing the creation of a tribunal to address the illegal drug trade. Following which the UN Security Council established two ad hoc tribunals in the early 1990s. The first was the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the second was the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, created in 1994.
On 7 July 1998, the International Criminal Court was founded by the United Nations General Assembly with the approval of 120 countries, but the seven countries against the International Criminal Court were China, Iraq, Israel, Libya, Qatar, the US, and Yemen. Due to which the United Nations General Assembly voted to support the ICC on 9 December 1999 and again on 12 December 2000. After 60 ratifications, the Rome Statute entered into force on 1 July 2002 and formally established the International Criminal Court.
Main Motive of International Criminal Court (ICC)
The ICC was established as a court to prosecute heinous crimes where national courts fail to act. Explain that the International Court of Justice (ICJ) hears and resolves disputes between nations, while the ICC hears individual cases. The jurisdiction of the court extends to offenses committed after July 01, 2002, which were committed either in a State that has ratified the Convention or by a national of such State.
How does the International Criminal Court work?
The International Criminal Court consists of eighteen judges, each from a different member state, who are elected by the member states. Judges and prosecutors are elected for non-renewable nine-year terms. The President of the Court and two Vice Presidents are elected from among the judges.
- Genocide, or the intent to destroy in whole or in part a national, ethnic, racial or religious group;
- War crimes, or serious violations of the laws of war, including the Geneva Convention's ban on torture, the use of child soldiers, and attacks on civilian targets such as hospitals or schools;
- Crimes against humanity, or violations committed as part of large-scale attacks against civilian populations, including murder, rape, captivity, slavery and torture;
- The crime of aggression by a State against the territorial integrity, sovereignty, or political independence of another State, or in violation of the United Nations Charter, or the use or threat of armed force.