Pandit Nehru completed his law degree from the University of Cambridge, after which he spent seven years in England where he developed a rational approach to Fabian socialism and Irish nationalism. Pt. Nehru returned to India in the year 1912 and started practicing pure Hindi grammar as well as practiced in India. In the same year, he participated in the Bankipur Conference as a delegate, in the year 1917, he joined the Jawaharlal Nehru Home Rule League, after which two years later in 1919 he came in contact with Mahatma Gandhi and became directly involved in politics. Nehru was deeply influenced by Mahatma Gandhi's ideas and, like his father, separated himself from Western culture and adopted Indian culture. He was now wearing a Khadi kurta and a Gandhi cap. Became Secretary of Home Rule League of Allahabad in 1919. He organized the first peasant march in Pratapgarh district of Uttar Pradesh in 1920. He also had to go to jail twice in connection with the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-22. But after a few months he was released. Pandit Nehru became the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee in September 1923. Pt. Nehru was elected President of the Allahabad Municipal Corporation in the year 1924 and served as the Chief Executive Officer of the city for two years after which he resigned in 1926 citing lack of cooperation from the British authorities. Along with which, from the years 1926 to 1928, Nehru served as the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee.
He visited Italy, Switzerland, England, Belgium, Germany and Russia in 1926. In Belgium, he attended the Conference of the Deen countries in Brussels as an official representative of the Indian National Congress. He attended the tenth anniversary celebration of the October Socialist Revolution in Moscow in 1927. Earlier in 1926, Nehru had an important role to play in the Madras Congress to commit the Congress to the goal of independence. He was lathi charged in 1928 while leading a procession against the Simon Commission in Lucknow. He attended the all-party conference on 29 August 1928 and was one of those who signed the Nehru Report on Indian constitutional reform. The report was named after his father, Mr. Motilal Nehru. The same year he founded the "Indian Independence League" and became its general secretary. The original purpose of this league was to completely separate India from the British Empire. In December 1929, the annual session of the Congress was held in Lahore in which Jawaharlal Nehru was elected the President of the Congress Party and a resolution was also passed during the same session demanding "complete Swarajya". On 26 January 1930, Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted the flag of independent India in Lahore and Gandhiji also called for the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.
In 1929, Pandit Nehru was elected the President of the Lahore Session of the Indian National Conference, whose main goal was to achieve complete independence for the country. He was imprisoned several times during 1930–35 due to the Salt Satyagraha and other Congress movements. He completed the writing of his "Autobiography" in Almora Jail on 14 February 1935. After his release, he went to Switzerland to see his ailing wife and he visited London in February-March 1936. He also visited Spain in July 1938 when civil war was going on there. He also visited China shortly before World War II began. Pandit Nehru protested against forcing India to take part in the war, conducting a personal satyagraha, which led to his arrest on 31 October 1940. He was released from prison in December 1941 along with other leaders. In the All India Congress Committee meeting held in Mumbai on 7 August 1942, Pandit Nehru set the goal of implementing the historic resolution "Quit India". On 8 August 1942 he was arrested along with other leaders and taken to Ahmednagar Fort. This was the last time he had to go to jail and this time he had to spend the longest time in jail. He went to jail nine times in his entire life. After his release in January 1945, he defended the INA officials and individuals facing charges of treason. In March 1946, Pandit Nehru visited Southeast Asia. On 6 July 1946, he was elected President of the Congress for the fourth time and again from 1951 to 1954 he was elected to this post for three more times.