Causes, consequences and important facts related to the First World War:
General information about the First World War:
In the history of the world, between the First World War (28 July 1914 AD to 11 November 1918 AD), the three continents of the world, Europe, Asia and Africa, were fought in water, land and sky. Due to the unprecedented figures of the number of participating countries, its area and the damage caused by it, it was named World War. World War I lasted for 4 years (about 52 months).
Nearly half the world was hit by violence, and during this time an estimated 10 million people died and twice as many were injured. Apart from this, lakhs of people also died due to diseases and malnutrition. By the end of the world war, the four major countries Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Osmania collapsed. The boundaries of the continent of Europe were redrawn and America certainly emerged as a 'super power'.
Why did the First World War happen?
World War I, also known as the Great War and World War I, was a deadly global conflict that originated in Europe. It began in 1914 and lasted until 1918, with World War I resulting in approximately nine million combat deaths and 13 million civilian deaths as a direct result of the conflict.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the growing rivalry between European nations became all too evident. Germany, upon its unification in 1871, was becoming an industrial power and other nations of Europe, particularly France and Britain, felt threatened by it. Around this time the Ottoman Empire gave birth to new countries in the Balkan region. One of them, Serbia, was gaining land and power at the expense of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. To counter this threat, the Austro-Hungarian Empire formed an alliance with Germany and Italy to defend each other, as with no future ones.
In response, Britain, France and Russia formed the Triple Entente for the same purpose. During the 1900s both Britain and Germany added larger and better warships to their naval arsenals. The rest of Europe also shot. By 1914, most European countries had prepared their armies for war. All that was needed was a spark to ignite it. The spark came to light when Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated on June 28, 1914, in Sarajevo, Bosnia.
Cause of the First World War:
Disturbance of the balance of European power:
- Before the unification of Germany in 1871, Germany did not play an important role in European politics, but a powerful German nation emerged under the leadership of Bismarck (Otto von Bismarck). This disturbed the balance of European power. Germany became a challenge for England and France. This increased the spirit of competition among European nations.
Prevalence of secret treaties:
- After the unification of Germany, Chancellor Bismarck (Otto von Bismarck) adopted the policies of secret treaties to make his country influential in European politics and to keep France friendless in European politics. He made a dual alliance with Austria-Hungary (1879). Friendship treaties were also made with Russia (1881 and 1887). Bismarck (Otto von Bismarck) also made friendly relations with England.
- In 1882 he made friendship treaties with Italy and Austria. As a result, a new faction was formed in Europe called the Triple Alliance. This included Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. England and France remained separate from this faction.
Conflict of Germany and France:
- There was an old enmity between Germany and France. During the unification of Germany, Bismarck had taken possession of the rich French region of Alsace-Lorraine. French interests were also damaged in Morocco. So the French public opinion was against Germany.
- France was always trying to humiliate Germany. On the other hand, Germany also wanted to keep France powerless. So Germany made a three-part agreement to keep France friendless. In return, France also formed a group of its allies against Germany. By the time of World War I, hostility between Germany and France had increased so much that it made war inevitable.
- Imperialism, mutual rivalry and conflict of interest for the expansion of empire) countries can be considered as the root cause of the First World War.
- As a result of the Industrial Revolution, there was a need for a market for the raw materials to run the factories and for the consumption of the goods produced in the factories. As a result, by using imperial powers, England, France and Russia took over them by making their own colonies in Asia and Africa.
- When Germany and Italy later joined the colonialist race, there was little room for expansion. Therefore, these countries adopted a new policy of colonial expansion.
- This policy was to strengthen its position by forcibly taking over the colonies of other nations.
- By the time the First World War broke out, Germany's economic and industrial condition had become very strong. So the German emperor became desperate to give Germany a proper place on earth and under the sun. His army was strong from the beginning, but now by building a strong fleet, he tried to develop his empire and challenge England's ownership of the sea.
- In 1911, the Agadir crisis arose as a result of the Anglo-German sailing competition. Attempts were made to solve it but it failed. In 1912 a huge ship Imperator was built in Germany, which was the largest ship of that time. As a result, enmity and competition increased between Germany and England.
- Similarly, the Moroccan and Bosnia crisis further fueled the competition between England and Germany.
- To increase its sphere of influence, when Germany planned the Verlaine-Baghdad Railroad with the aim of establishing control over the economy of the decadent Turkish Empire, England, France and Russia opposed it. This increased bitterness.
Emphasis on militarism and armament:
- Militarism, like imperialism, also brought the First World War closer. Each nation engaged in the manufacture and sale of weapons to implement its security and expansionist policy. For the security of their own colonies, it became necessary to be strong from the military point of view. As a result, new weapons of war were created. A large part of the national income began to be spent on the manufacture of weapons and military organization.
- For example France, Germany and other major nations were spending 85% of their income on military systems. Compulsory military service was introduced in many countries. The number of soldiers was greatly increased. Military officers dominated the politics of the country. Thus the whole of Europe sat on a pile of gunpowder. It was just a delay of the explosion. This explosion happened in 1914.
- Radical or distorted nationalism also became a fundamental cause of the First World War.
- It developed equally in all the countries of Europe. There was a growing feeling that if people of the same caste, religion, language, and historical tradition came together and worked together, they would become a separate identity and progress.
- Earlier also Germany and Italy had been unified on this basis. This sentiment was stronger in the Balkans region. The Balkan region was under the Turkish Empire.
- With the weakening of the Turkish Empire, the demand for independence in the region began to gain momentum. In many areas of the Turkish Empire and Austria-Hungary, people of the Slavic race were predominant. He was demanding a separate Slavic nation.
- Russia believed that after independence from Austria-Hungary and Turkey, the Slavs would come under Russian influence. That is why Russia promoted the All-Slavic or Sarvaslavism movement. This caused a rift between Russia and Austria-Hungary.
- Similarly Pan-Germanism also went on. The people of Sarva, Czech and Pol races were also demanding independence. This increased the feeling of bitterness among European nations.
Viseli Publicity by Newspapers and Publicity Means:
- Politicians, philosophers and writers of each country were advocating war in their writings. The bourgeoisie also became a supporter of war in its own interest, the most important role in preparing war-oriented public opinion was the newspapers. The newspaper of each country used to publish false and inflammatory articles against the other nation.
- This caused bitterness among different nations and their people. The false propaganda of newspapers poisoned the atmosphere of Europe and made war inevitable.
- The immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria in the capital of Bosnia, Sarajevo. On 28 June 1914, a Bosnian youth of all races with links to a terrorist organization Kala Hath shot and killed the prince and his wife. This shocked the whole of Europe. Austria held Cervia responsible for the incident.
- Austria threatened Serbia to clarify the situation in this regard within 48 hours and suppress the terrorists. Serbia turned down Austria's demands. As a result, on 28 July 1914, Austria declared war on Serbia. Along with this, other nations also joined the war in support of their respective factions. Thus began the First World War.
Paris Peace Conference:
The conference of the victorious countries held in Paris after the end of the First World War is called the Paris Peace Conference. This created the 'conditions of peace' to be applied to the defeated countries. This conference was held in Paris in 1919 in which diplomats from 32 countries of the world participated. The main decisions taken in this were the formation of the League of Nations and five peace treaties with the defeated countries.
Treaty of Versailles: This treaty was signed between the Allies and Germany. In which countries like France, America, Russia etc. were included. The defeated Germany after the First World War signed the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919. As a result, Germany lost a large part of its land, banned the occupation of other states, limited the size of its army, and imposed heavy indemnities. The Treaty of Versailles was forcibly imposed on Germany. For this reason Adolf Hitler and other Germans considered it humiliating and thus this treaty was one of the causes of World War II.
Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye: The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919, with which Montenegro was merged to form Slovakia for ages. Poland was reorganized. Some territory of Austria was also given to Italy. In which the territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina were snatched and given to Serbia. The state of Czechoslovakia was established by separating some regions. Austria was banned from any political relations with Germany.
Treaty of Niuli: On 27 November 1919, some areas of Bulgaria were given to Greece, Yugoslavia and Romania.
Treaty of Trianon: On 4 June 1920, Slovakia and Ruthenia were given to Czechoslovakia. Many territories were also given to Yugoslavia and Romania. As a result of these treaties, the political and economic condition of Austria-Hungary became very weak.
Treaty of Sevres: Turkey fought on the side of Germany in the First World War and after being defeated, it had to make a treaty with the Allies, which is called the Treaty of Sevres, this treaty was on 10 August 1920Egypt, Sudan, Palestine, Morocco, Arab, Areas like Syria, Iran etc. were separated from Turkey. Britain controlled Syria over France and Palestine and Iran.
Treaty of Rapallo: The Treaty of Rapallo was an agreement signed between Germany and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic on 16 April 1922. Under this, the enemies of World War I, Russia and Germany, decided in the Italian city of Rapalo to give up the territorial and financial claims they had received under the Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. Were.
Treaty of Lausanne: The Treaty of Lausanne was a peace agreement signed on 26 July 1923 in the city of Lausanne, Switzerland. As a result, the war between Turkey, the British Empire, the French Republic, the Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Japan, the Kingdom of Greece, the Kingdom of Romania, and the All-Croto-Slovene state since the beginning of the First World War formally ended. This was the second effort towards peace after the breakup of the Treaty of Sevres.
Important facts related to the First World War are as follows:
- The First World War started on 28 July 1914.
- World War I lasted for 4 years.
- 32 countries participated in the First World War.
- The immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of Prince Ferdinand of Austria.
- The Austrian prince was assassinated in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia.
- During the First World War, the world was divided into two camps, the Allies and the Axis.
- Apart from Germany, the Axis countries were also led by countries like Austria, Hungary and Italy.
- The Allies included England, Japan, the United States, Russia, and France.
- Bismarck was the father of the system of secret treaties.
- The threesome between Austria, Germany and Italy was formed in 1882 AD.
- Serbia's secret revolutionary organization was a black hand.
- The Russo-Japanese War ended with US President Roosevelta.
- The Moroccan crisis came to the fore in 1906.
- During the First World War, Germany attacked Russia on August 1, 1914.
- Germany attacked France on 3 August 1914 AD.
- England joined the First World War on 8 August 1914 AD.
- The President of the United States at the time of World War I was Woodrow Wilson.
- America joined World War I after Germany's U boat sank a ship called the England Lusitania. Because 128 of the 1153 people who died on the Lusitania ship were Americans.
- Italy joined the First World War on 26 April 1915 on behalf of the Allies.
- The First World War ended on 11 November 1918.
- The Paris Peace Conference took place on 18 June 1919.
- 27 countries participated in the Paris Peace Conference.
- Apart from land, this war was also fought in the sky and sea.
- The Treaty of Versailles was signed between Germany and the Allies (28 June 1919 AD).
- An amount of 6 billion 500 million was demanded from Germany as war damages.
- The biggest contribution of the First World War in the international arena was the establishment of the League of Nations.
- The term "world war" was first used in September 1914 by the German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel, who claimed that "there is no doubt that the course and character of the dreaded 'European War'... Will become.
Events before and during the First World War:
|1878||Serbia gained independence from the Ottoman Empire|
|1881||Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy form a Triple Alliance to defend each other in the event of war|
|1904||Britain forms the Entente Cordiale with France|
|1907||Russia joins Britain to create Triple Entente|
|1908||Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina to prevent Serbia from taking control|
|1912-1913||The Balkan Wars are fought between the Balkan League (Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro). Balkan League is victorious|
|1914 - June 28||Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo|
|1914 - 28 July||Austria declared war on Serbia. Russia prepares to defend Serbia from Austria|
|1914 - August 1||Germany declares war on Russia to defend Austria|
|1914 - August 3||Germany declares war on France, Russia allies|
|1914 - August 4||German forces march from Belgium to France. Britain declares war on Germany World War I begins|
|1914 - August 26||Germany defeats Russian forces at the Battle of Tenberg|
|1914 - September||At the Battle of the Marne, the Allies halted the German advance on Paris. The German victory in the same month ended Russian involvement in East Prussia.|