Meaning, Types, Effects and List of Major Volcanoes of the World:
What is a volcano called?
A volcano is a place on Earth from where molten rock, called magma, located very beneath the Earth, comes to the Earth's surface. When magma reaches the ground, it is called lava. The lava at the mouth of the volcano and its surrounding area is scattered to form an angle. Here, we are giving the list of major active volcanoes of the world which can be used for educational purposes as well as for preparation of competitive exams.
Types of Volcanoes:
On the basis of frequency of volcanic eruption it is classified as:
- Active volcano: Volcanoes from which lava, gas and fissile material always eject are called active or active volcanoes. At present, the number of awakened volcanoes in the world is said to be around 500. Prominent among these are Etna and Stromboli volcanoes of Italy. Stromboli Volcano is located in the Mediterranean Sea on the island of Lipari, north of Sicily. It always gives out igniting gases. Due to which the surrounding part remains bright, for this reason this volcano is called the lighthouse of the Mediterranean Sea.
- Dormant volcano: Some volcanoes calm down after exclamation and do not show signs of re-eruption, but suddenly they cause explosive or quiet eruption, causing huge loss of wealth and life. It falls. Such volcanoes whose time and nature are not certain about their erupting and which are still visible at present, are called dormant volcanoes. Vesuvius and Krakatoa are currently included in the category of dormant volcanoes. Vesuvius has woken up and calmed down several times in geologic history.
- Dead or Quiet Volcano: When the erupting of a calm volcano ends completely and water gets filled in its mouth and lakes are formed, then there is no possibility of its erupting again. According to the Bhugadhik history, they have not erupted for a very long time. Such a volcano is called a calm volcano. Koh Sultan and Deoband are the main calm volcanoes of Iran. Similarly, the Pope volcano of Varma is also an example of a Pacific volcano.
Cause of Volcanoes:
Studies by geologists have shown that there are some radioactive minerals present at different depths beneath the surface, whose fission generates heat. Due to this heat, the rocks and other materials present inside the earth keep heating up. As a result, the temperature in the lower levels of the crust reaches above the melting point of the rocks. But with depth the pressure also increases.
Therefore, at these depths, there is a conflict between temperature and pressure, although the temperature rises above the melting point of rocks (1000 ° C), but due to excessive pressure, the rocks do not liquefy (do not melt), but sometimes the temperature and An imbalance is created between the pressures.
This imbalance can arise in two ways:-
1. Extreme increase in temperature relative to pressure.
2. Decrease in pressure relative to temperature.
In both these cases, the rocks located below the ground are immediately converted into liquid state and magma is formed. A similar result is also due to the relative reduction in pressure. Earthquake Disturbances cause substantial movement in the layers of the crust, resulting in the formation of large cracks. These cracks go deep. At the levels up to which the cracks reach, the pressure decreases.
This creates an imbalance between temperature and pressure. In this situation, if the temperature rises above the melting point of the rocks, then locally magma is formed immediately. As magma builds up, it immediately flows from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure. In this sequence, it moves upwards towards the surface through cracks. In the course of moving up through the cracks, sometimes the magma succeeds in reaching the surface, but sometimes it solidifies on the way. The magma that reaches the surface is called lava and due to this volcanic eruption occurs.
Effects of Volcanoes:
- A phreatic eruption is a process of steam-borne eruption.
- The eruption of lava is accompanied by an eruption of high silica.
- Eruptive eruptions of lava occur even with low silica levels.
- Carbon dioxide emissions.
- The lava from the eruption is so viscous and glutinous that between two erupts it strongly covers it at the volcanic vent. In this way the passage of gases gets blocked.
List of major active volcanoes of the world:
|Name of volcano||Place||Height||Explosion last date/year|
|Popocatépetl||Altiplano de mexico||5451 m||1920|
|Santa Ana||Karakota, Indonesia||155 meters||1929|
|Mount Cameroon||Monarch, Cameroon||278 m||1959|
|Guallatiri||Andes, Chile||6060 m||1960|
|Fuego (Volcán de Fuego)||Sierra Madre, Guatemala||-||1962|
|Mount Agung||Bali island, Indonesia||3142 m||1964|
|Tupungatito||Andes, Chile||5640 m||1964|
|Lascar||Andes, Chile||5641 m||1968|
|Klyuchevskaya (Klyuchevskaya Sopka)||Shredini - Kherbet, USSR||4850 m||1974|
|Erebus||Ross Island, Antarctica||3795 m||1975|
|Sangay||Andes, Colombia||5230 m||1976|
|Semeru||Java, Indonesia||3676 m||1976|
|Nyiragongo||Virunga, Democratic Republic of the Congo||3470 m||1977|
List of other major volcanoes of the world:
- Tacana, Ojosdale Celedo, Cotopaxi, Lesser, Tupungtito, Popocatapital, Sangay, Kluchevskaya, Purés, Tjumulco, Maunaloa, Mount Cameroon, Mount Erebus, Rindjani, Pico del Teide, Semeru, Lasparya, Lascaya, Maaque, Smeruya, Laspera Ma, Ney Peak, Mount St. Helens, Tambora, The Peak, Mount Leminton, Mount Peele, Hexa, Lassofferie, Vesuvius, Kilaus, Stromboli, Santorini, Balacano, Paricutin, Sartse, Enac Krakatoa and Toba.