BHARAT KE PRAMUKH RASHTRIY ABHYARAN VA RASHTRIYA UDYAN KI SUCHI
List of Major National Sanctuaries and Parks of India: India's first national park was in 1936 - Hailey National Park, which is now known as Jim Corbett National Park. Till 1970 there were only 5 national parks in India. In the 1980s, apart from the Wildlife Protection Act and the Project Tiger scheme, many other legal provisions came into force for the protection of wildlife.
In April 2012, the number of national parks in the country was 102, whose total area is 39919 square kilometers, which is 1.21 percent of the total land area of India. There are more than 500 sanctuaries in India, which are called wild life sanctuaries. Many national parks were earlier wildlife sanctuaries. Some wildlife sanctuaries are of national importance due to the conservation of some of their main animal species:
National Parks in India- Key Points Related to UPSC IAS Exam:
- National parks, wildlife sanctuaries, reserve forests, conservation reserves, marine reserves, community reserves, biosphere reserves come under protected areas.
- India is one of the 17 megadiverse countries of the world. The country is best known for its plethora of flora and fauna.
- National Parks are protected areas under IUCN Category II. India's first national park was established in 1936 in Uttarakhand, Jim Corbett National Park.
- There were only five national parks in India till 1970. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act.
List of National Parks and Sanctuaries of India:
|Sr:No:||National Park/Sanctuary||State||Key wildlife animals|
|1||Palamu Sanctuary||Jharkhand||Elephant, Deer, Leopard, Sambhar, Wild Boar|
|2||Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary||Jharkhand||Elephant, Deer, Leopard, Bear, Wild Boar|
|3||Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary||Jharkhand||cheetah, bear, panther, chital, sambar, wild boar|
|4||Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary||Bihar||tiger, nilgai, gharial, sambar, wild boar|
|5||Gir National Park||Gujarat||Lion, Sambar, Leopard, Wild Boar|
|6||Nal Sarovar Sanctuary||Gujarat||water-fowl|
|7||Jim Corbett National Park||Uttarakhand||Elephant, Tiger, Cheetah, Deer, Bear, Nilgai, Sambhar, Wild Boar|
|8||Dudhwa National Park||Uttar Pradesh||Elephant, Tiger, Cheetah, Deer, Nilgai, Leopard|
|9||Chandraprabha Sanctuary||Uttar Pradesh||Cheetah, Bear, Nilgai, Leopard, Sambar|
|10||Bandipur National Park||Karnataka||Elephant, Cheetah, Leopard, Deer, Chital, Sambhar,|
|11||Bhadra Sanctuary||Karnataka||Bear, Elephant, Sambhar, Leopard, Deer|
|12||Someshwar Sanctuary||Karnataka||cheetah, wild dog, deer, panther, sambar|
|13||Tungabhadra Sanctuary||Karnataka||Leopard, chital, blackbuck, chausingha and birds|
|14||Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary||Andhra Pradesh||cheetah, panther, sambar, bear, wild boar|
|15||Kavla Wildlife Sanctuary||Andhra Pradesh||cheetah, panther, sambar, bear, wild boar, chital|
|16||Manas National Park||Assam||Elephant, Cheetah, Bear, One-horned Unicorn, Langur, Deer|
|17||Kaziranga National Park||Assam||cheetah, one-horned rhinoceros, huangli boar, buffalo|
|18||Ghana Bird Sanctuary||Rajasthan||Sambhar, black buck, wild boar, cock, gharial, Siberian crane.|
|19||Ranthambore Sanctuary||Rajasthan||Cheetah, Tiger, Lion, Leopard, Hyena, Bear, Nilgai, Sambar|
|20||Kumbalgarh Sanctuary||Rajasthan||cheetah, nilgai, sambar, bear, nilgai|
|21||Pench National Park||Madhya Pradesh||cheetah, nilgai, sambar, bear, wild boar|
|22||Tansa Sanctuary||Maharashtra||Leopard, Sambhar, Chausingha, Wild Boar, Chital, Birds|
|23||Vorivili National Park||Maharashtra||Langur, deer, sambar, panther, wild boar|
|24||Abohar Sanctuary||Punjab||Wild Boar, Deer, Nilgai, Black Swan, Pigeon|
|25||Chikla Sanctuary||Odisha||crane, cormorant, pelivan, migratory bird|
|26||Simlipal Sanctuary||Odisha||Elephant, Tiger, Cheetah, Leopard, Sambar, Deer, Crocodile, Aquatic bird|
|27||Vedantagal Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu||Aquatic birds|
|28||Indira Gandhi Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu||Elephant, tiger, chital, panther, sambar, bear, wild dog, langur|
|29||Mudumalai Sanctuary||Tamil Nadu||Elephant, cheetah, panther, sambar, deer, wild dog|
|30||Dampha Sanctuary||Mizoram||cobra, cheetah, cat, pheasant|
|31||Periyar Sanctuary||Kerala||cheetah, elephant, leopard, sambar, deer, bear, nilgai, wild boar|
|32||Parambikulam Sanctuary||Kerala||cheetah, elephant, panther, sambar, deer, nilgai, wild boar|
|33||Kanha National Park||Madhya Pradesh||Tiger, Chital, Leopard, Sambhar, Barasingha|
|34||Panchmarhi Sanctuary||Madhya Pradesh||Tiger, panther, sambar, nilgai, chital, deer, bear, wild buffalo.|
|35||Dachigam National Park||Jammu and Kashmir||Leopard, black bear, red bear, deer,|
|36||Kishtwar National Park||Jammu and Kashmir||Blackbuck, Wild Yak, Tibetan Donkey|
|37||Bandhavgarh National Park||Madhya Pradesh||Tiger, Leopard, Sambar, Bear, Chakor|
|38||Rajiv Gandhi Sanctuary (Nagarhole National Park)||Karnataka||cheetah, elephant, leopard, sambar, bear, chakor, pheasant,|
|39||Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary||Arunachal Pradesh||Elephant, python, deer, sambar|
|40||Sultanpur Lake Sanctuary||Haryana||Different water birds|
|41||Rohilla National Park||Himachal Pradesh||Musk Deer, Brown Bear, Mountain Rooster, Mountain Leopard|
|42||Sunderbans National Park||West Bengal||Tiger, Cheetah, Deer, Crocodile|
|43||Bhagwan Mahavir Garden||Goa||deer, mouse, porcupine, sambar|
|44||Nongkhailem Sanctuary||Meghalaya||Elephant, Cheetah, Tiger, Deer, Sambar, Bear|
|45||Kiebul Lamjao National Park||Manipur||Deer, wild goat, various water birds|
|46||Rajaji National Park||Uttarakhand||Elephants, deer, leopards, sambhars and peacocks|
|47||Orang Tiger Reserve||Assam||tiger|
|48||Kamlang Tiger Reserve||Arunachal Pradesh||-|
|49||Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary||Arunachal Pradesh||tiger|
Important facts and questions on National Parks in India:
1. What is a National Park?
Any natural habitat set aside by the government of a state or union territory for the protection of the natural environment is called a national park.
2. Which is the largest national park in India?
Hemis National Park in Ladakh is the largest national park in India. Hemis National Park is globally renowned for its snow leopards, which are believed to have the highest density of any protected area in the world.
3. Why do we need National Parks?
There are several objectives for creating a national park: It can help in the conservation of a specific region or area of ecosystem os the conservation of species that are on the verge of extinction Conserving natural resources for ecological development It can preserve various species can help to
4. Which was the first Marine National Park of India?
The first Marine National Park is located in the Gulf of Kutch and was created in 1982. It is situated on the southern shore of the Gulf of Kutch in Devbhoomi Dwarka district of Gujarat state.
5. Which is the only floating national park in the country and where is it located?
The Keibul Lamjao National Park is a national park in Bishnupur district of the state of Manipur in India. It is the only floating national park in the world.
6. What is the difference between National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary?
A wildlife sanctuary is an area of nature owned by a government or a private agency for the protection of a particular species of flora or fauna during a part of the year or in its entirety. Whereas, a national park is a reserved area of government-owned land that is protected from industrialization, human exploitation, and pollution.
7. Which is the oldest national park in India?
Jim Corbett National Park is the oldest national park in India. It is located in Uttarakhand and was established in 1936.
8. How many national parks are there in India?
There are a total of 101 national parks in India (as of April 2021). They cover a total area of 40,564 km, which is 1.23% of the country's geographical area.