Important facts related to Indian climate and monsoon
What is climate?
Climate is the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area over a long period of time. Meaning changes in climate occur only over a very long time period, such as at present the situation of global warming exists in all the places of the earth, which has been exposed due to the reasons that have happened over many years.
Types of Indian Climate:
- Tropical rainforest climate or Equatorial climate.
- Monsoon climate.
- Hot desert climates.
- Subtropical wetland climate.
- Mediterranean climate.
- Cold Desert climate.
- Tundra climate.
Main factors affecting Indian climate:
- India's position and relief.
- Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of India.
- Presence of the Himalayas in the north and the Indian Ocean in the south.
- Surface winds and jet air currents.
Major Seasons of India:
Traditionally, six seasons have been considered in India, but the Indian Meteorological Department describes four seasons, which we can write in comparison with their traditional names as follows:
- Winter season: from December to March, with December and January being the coldest months; The average temperature in northern India ranges from 10॰ to 15॰ degree Celsius.
- Summer season: From April to June in which May is the hottest month, the average temperature is 32॰ to 40॰ degree Celsius.
- Rainy Season: From July to September, in which the maximum rainfall occurs in the month of August, in fact both the arrival and return of monsoons occur sequentially and their timing varies from place to place. Generally June 01 is the date of arrival of monsoon over Kerala coast. Immediately after this it reaches Northeast India and moves from east to west and north to south respectively, the date of arrival of monsoon is considered to be 18 June in Allahabad and 29 June in Delhi.
- Autumn (winter) season: In northern India, the weather is clear and calm in the months of October and November and the monsoon starts returning in October, bringing rain from the returning monsoon over the Tamil Nadu coast.
What is Monsoon called?
The origin of monsoon is from the Arabic word "mausim" which literally means "seasonal change". Major causes of monsoon origin:
- Uneven heating of water and land.
- In the summer, the terrestrial parts are hotter, which creates an area of "low pressure" in the land. As a result, the winds of high pressure start blowing towards the low pressure, these winds bring rainwater from the sea side.
List of important facts related to monsoon:
- The good performance of monsoon depends on the occurrence of El Nio. It is found that the monsoon performance is weak in the year when El Nino arrives. Apart from this, the jet stream also greatly influences the Indian monsoon.
- The climate of India is most affected by the heat and monsoon, hence the climate here is called the hot monsoon climate.
- The nature of India's monsoon is very uncertain, due to this uncertainty it has been called a gamble with the Indian farmer.
- The Indian subcontinent is influenced by the subtropical jet and east jet wind and these winds control the monsoon in India.
- Rainfall in the north-eastern states is of mountain type. By hitting the hills like Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Mikir, Rengma, Barail etc., these winds rise up and cool down and rain.
- The reason for the excessive rainfall in Cherrapunji is due to the rise of monsoon wind in the shape of a cone from the middle of the valley of Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and cools down to cause excessive rainfall.
- The place with the highest rainfall is Masinram, located 50 km west of Cherrapunji.
- Rainfall in the plains of Assam is of cyclonic type.
- The inversion of temperature is found in the desert.
- Troughs do not form in the Bay of Bengal.
Other important facts related to climate:
- Monsoon Burst: Full of humidity. The western monsoon wind reaches the terrestrial parts and causes intense rain with lightning thunder. This sudden heavy rain is called "monsoon burst".
- Monsoon break: During the rainy season of the southwest monsoon, when there is no rain for a week or more, this phenomenon/interval is called "monsoon break" or "monsoon break".
- Heat: In summer, dry and hot winds blowing in the north-western parts of India, generally after noon, are called heat waves, due to its effect, people sometimes die.
- Kaal Baisakhi: In summer, the combination of terrestrial and warm wind and moist sea winds gives rise to thunderstorms and storms, which are called "Norwester" in Northeast India and "Kal Baisakhi" in West Bengal.
- Mango rain: The rain that occurs in Karnataka during the summer due to the combination of terrestrial and warm wind and moist sea winds is beneficial for the local crop of mango, hence it is called "mango rain".
- Cyclone: Due to the difference in air pressure, when there is low air pressure in the center and high air pressure outside, the air starts moving from high pressure to low pressure forming a circular pattern (in the northern hemisphere), it is called cyclone.
Now practice related questions and see what you learnt?
- List of Important Local Winds of World 🔗
- Atmosphere Structure their 5 Layers, Composition and Gases 🔗
- Clouds: Types, Formation Process and Interesting Facts 🔗