Prehistoric And Stone Age India:
Meaning of prehistoric period: - Prehistoric period is called that period of history which has archaeological sources but no literary source or written source exists. Many important events happened with humans in this period, including the removal of humans from Africa to other places, ice age, discovery of fire, animal husbandry and agriculture, development in habitat, etc., all these have made their future more developed and active.
Stone Age Discoverer and Discoverer: The Stone Age was first discovered in India in 1863 AD by the Chairman of the Archaeological Survey of India "Robert Bruce Foote" after receiving the stone hand ax-like tools at Pallavaram, Madras.
Meaning of Stone Age: Stone Age is that era of history when human life was completely dependent on stones. This included hunting with stones, taking shelter in stone caves, making fire with stones, etc.
Types of Stone Age:- There are mainly three types of Stone Age, which are as follows-
- Mesolithic period
- New Stone Age
(A) History and features of the Palaeolithic period
- Chronology:- The chronology of the Palaeolithic period is 25 lakh BC. From 10 thousand BC has been confirmed. The Palaeolithic Age is also divided into three parts. In which the Early Palaeolithic period (25 lakh BC to 1 lakh BC), the Middle Palaeolithic period (1 lakh BC to 40 thousand BC) and the North Palaeolithic period (40 thousand BC to 10 thousand BC). BC) is included.
- Life System in the Palaeolithic Age: The life of the people in this period was barbaric and pathetic. Human life was generally dependent on nature and he had no knowledge of civilization. Due to lack of discovery of fire in this period, man used to eat food raw. Due to lack of knowledge of agriculture, they had to depend only on natural vegetation, flowers and roots obtained by nature. During this period, man had started rearing animals to a large extent.
- Habitat:- In this period the nature of human was nomadic, due to which it was very less to have a definite place of residence. Human beings started living on the banks of mountains, trees and rivers because of their protection.
- Clothing in the Palaeolithic Age: - In this period, due to lack of knowledge of clothes, the primitive man used to live in a completely naked state. He used to use his long long hair to avoid the cold in cold weather.
- Palaeolithic economy or livelihood: - Due to lack of knowledge of agriculture and animal husbandry in this period, there was lack of options in his food material. Hunting was the main means of economy. Humans were dependent on animal meat and natural tuber roots.
- Arms and tools:- In this period only spear, bow, needle, mace, hand-axe, cleaver and scraper were used as the main tools.
- Social condition:- Human nature was simple and simple in its period. His need was low, due to which he did not depend on others. Man preferred to be alone rather than in society because he was at greater risk than man at that time.
- Religious status: - In this era there was lack of faith, hatred, love etc. in man, due to which his interest was limited and that is why faith and religion did not rise in this period.
- Source and Evidence:- Its remains have been found in Sohan, Belan and Narmada river valley. Painted caves, rock shelters and many artifacts have been found near Bhopal called Bhimbetka.
(B) History and Characteristics of Mesolithic Period
- Chronology:- Determination of the Mesolithic Age is 10 thousand BC. 4 thousand BC has been fixed.
- Life System in the Mesolithic Age:- During this period, the life of man had started to become simple. Due to a slight increase in knowledge, man had left his nomadic life and now started choosing his permanent life. Even during this period, due to the lack of development of man towards agriculture, he had to depend on natural vegetation. But during this period he had learned to do animal husbandry, due to which his life became a little easier.
- Residence:- Due to a slight increase in the knowledge of man during this period, he started living on a permanent residence free from fear. At this time, humans left the trees and trees and started living in the flat area on the banks of mountain-candles and rivers.
- Clothing in the Mesolithic Age: - In this period, due to the knowledge of the tree etc. to the primitive man, he started using the leaves and bark of the tree as clothes.
- Mesolithic economy or livelihood:- In this period man lacked knowledge of agriculture and due to which his economy or livelihood depended on animal husbandry and hunting. Even at this time, due to non-discovery of fire, he had to eat all these things raw. At this time his diet options had started increasing, he started consuming meat and fish from birds.
- Arms and Tools:- Mining shows that people of this period were using only rectangular, crescent shaped and sharp blades, cores, cleavers and scrapers etc. Hammer, knife, ax and spear were used in other weapons. The biggest feature of the weapons of this era was that at this time humans had started putting a hilt on their ends.
- Social condition:- In this period, social feeling had already become stronger in human beings. It seems that at this time he had started the family system. At this time, the cannibalistic form of human beings was negligible, due to which mutual interdependence started increasing among the people and he started living in small groups.
- Religious Status:- In this era the initial religious feeling started to be born in man. He had now started worshiping nature as a goddess, he had started fearing nature.
- Source and Evidence:- Its remains have been found from Mahadaha of Uttar Pradesh, in which Mesolithic bones and horns have been found in large quantities.
(C) History and Characteristics of the Neolithic Age (Post Stone Age)
- Chronology:- The chronology of the Neo-Stone Age is 10 thousand BC. From 1 thousand BC has been fixed.
- Life System in the Neo-Stone Age:- Due to the increase in the knowledge of man during this period, he now started a social life by building safe houses. At the same time the discovery of fire had brought a new revolution in his life. Humans had now acquired a lot of knowledge of agriculture, animal husbandry and hunting.
- Center of Culture and Civilization: - The culture and civilization of the Neolithic era has developed in some important regions of India, such as Varzahom (Kashmir), Indus region, northern India, Bihar, Assam etc.
- Arms, tools and tools:- Even at this time, mostly axes, hammers, bow-arrows, spears, spears and etc. were used. The sickle and wheels were the revolutionary tools in this era. At this time tools were started using wood, clay, jasper, chalcedony, etc., apart from stone.
- Habitat:- During this period the nomadic life of man had come to an end. He was now living in a certain place. He started building strong and stable houses on the banks of rivers and in flat plains using stones, tree branches and animal bones.
- Food: - Due to the discovery of fire in this period, now the grains and meat obtained by hunting and agriculture were cooked and eaten. There was also an increase in drinking water due to animal husbandry.
- Economy:- In the Neolithic period, the economy was not only dependent on hunting, but also on animal husbandry, agriculture, spinning, weaving, handicrafts. Wheat, barley, maize, herbs etc. were being cultivated in different areas.
- Vastrabhushan:- Due to the cultivation of cotton, now people started making clothes and covering their body with them. Both men and women had started wearing ornaments using shells, bones, pearls, stones etc.
- Social Condition and Origin of Language:- In this period the language of man had developed, due to which he could now express his thoughts in front of others. Gradually, this art of his gave birth to social life. Now man considered it more safe to live in the society and he started making rules and laws, due to which later elements like caste and class emerged in the society.
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