Major sites and explorers of Indus Valley Civilization and important facts:
History of Indus Valley Civilization The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the major civilizations of the ancient river valley civilizations of the world. According to research published in the respected journal Nature, this civilization is at least 8000 years old. It is also known as Harappan Civilization and 'Indus-Saraswati Civilization'. It developed on the banks of the Indus and Ghaggar/Hakra (ancient Saraswati). Mohenjodaro, Kalibanga, Lothal, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi and Harappa were its main centers. In December 2014, Bhirdana was recognized as the oldest city of the Indus Valley Civilization ever discovered.
This old civilization was first discovered by Charles Massen in 1826. Cunningham conducted a survey about this civilization in 1856. During the construction of the Central Railway line from Karachi to Lahore in 1856, the Burton brothers informed the government about the Harappan site. In this sequence, in 1861, under the direction of Alexander Cunningham, the Archaeological Department of India was established. In 1904, John Marshall was made the Director General of the Archaeological Department of India by Lord Curzon.
Major sites and explorers of Indus Civilization:
Brief Description of Harappan Site: Harappa is an archaeological site in the Punjab province of northeastern Pakistan. It is situated 20 km west of Sahiwal city. Many remains of the Indus Valley Civilization have been received from here. The Indus Valley Civilization is also called Harappan Civilization because of the name of this city. In 1921, when John Marshall was the director of the Archaeological Department of India, Dayaram Sahni got the first excavation done at this place. Apart from Dayaram Sahni, Madhav Swarup and Martimer Wehler also did the excavation work. Most of the Harappan city was destroyed due to the construction of railway lines.
Brief Description of Mohenjodaro Site: Mohenjodaro means "Mound of the Dead" in Sindhi language. It is considered to be the oldest planned and outstanding city in the world. It is the most mature city of the Indus Valley Civilization. This city is situated on the banks of the river Indus in the Sakkhar district. The correct pronunciation of the word Mohenjo Daro is 'Muan Jo Daro'. It was discovered by Rakhaldas Banerjee in 1922 AD. The excavation work started on the instructions of John Marshall, Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India.
During the excavation here, a large amount of buildings, metal sculptures, and seals were found. In the last 100 years, only one-third of this city has been excavated, and now that too has stopped. It is believed that this city was spread over an area of 125 hectares and there used to be a water tank in it too! Location- Larkana district of Sindh province of Pakistan.
Brief description of Ropar site: Ropar is a very ancient site, presently it is known as Rupnagar. History of the city goes back to the city of Indus Valley Civilization. Rupnagar is situated on the southern bank of the Sutlej. On the other side of the Sutlej river are the Shivalik mountains. Rupnagar is about 50 kms from Chandigarh (nearest airport and capital of Punjab). Is at a distance of. The ancient city of Rupnagar was named after the 11th century king named Rokeshar after his son Roop Sen.
|Ranganath Nath Rao
Brief Description of Lothal Site: Lothal is one of the most important cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. This city, about 2400 BC, is located in the Bhal region of the Indian state of Gujarat and was discovered in 1954. The city was excavated by the Archaeological Survey of India from 13 February 1955 to 19 May 1956. Lothal is situated near village Saragwala in Dholka Taluka of Ahmedabad District. At the time of the Indus Valley Civilization, the Kutch desert surrounding it was a part of the Arabian Sea.
In ancient times it was an important and thriving trade center from where pearls, gems and precious ornaments were sent to the far corners of West Asia and Africa. The techniques and tools for making beads were well developed and the metallurgy here stood the test of time for more than 4000 years. Major discoveries include a mound, a town, a market place and a dock.
Brief description of Kalibanga site: Kalibanga is a word of Indus language which is derived from Kali + Banga (black colored bangles). Kali means black color and Banga means bangles. Kalibanga is an ancient and historical place in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan. Very interesting and important remains of Harappan civilization have been found here. Kali Banga was a small town.
A fort has been found here. The civilization of ancient Kalibanga flourished and flourished even from the Indus civilization in the region of the present-day Ghaggar river, in the ancient Drashadvati and Saraswati river valleys. Kalibanga is believed to be more than 4000 BC. It was first discovered by Amalanand Ghosh in 1953. BK Thapar and VV Lal did excavation work here in 1961-69.
|N. G. Majumdar
Brief Description of Chanhudaro Site: Chanhudaro is an archaeological site belonging to the urban Jhukar phase of the Indus Valley Civilization. This area is located 130 kilometers (81 mi) south of Mohenjodaro in Sindh province of Pakistan. The area is believed to have been inhabited from 4000 to 1700 BCE and is known as the site of Indragopa beads manufacturing.
Chanhudaro was first excavated in March 1934 by NG Majumdar and then in 1935-36 by a team from the American School of Indic and Iranian and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston under the leadership of Ernest John Henry Mackay.
Sutkangedor Site Brief Description: Sutkangedor is the westernmost known archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization. It is located about 480 km west of Karachi on the Makran coast near Gwadar near the Iranian border in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. Sutkangedor was discovered in 1875 by Major Edward Mockler, who conducted small-scale excavations.
In 1928 Aurel Stein visited the area as part of his Gedrosia tour, and did further excavations. In October 1960, Sutkangedor was commissioned as part of his Makran survey by George F. Excavations were carried out more extensively by the Dales, uncovering structures made of stone and mud bricks without straw.
|Fazal Ahmed Khan
Brief description of Kotdiji site: The ancient site at Kotdiji was an important part of the Indus Civilization. The occupation of this site is already attested in 3300 BC. The remains include the high ground and the two-part citadel area on the outskirts. The Archaeological Department of Pakistan conducted excavations at Kotdiji in 1955 and 1957.
It is on the eastern bank of the Indus opposite Mohenjodaro, about 24 kilometers south of Khairpur in the Sindh province of Pakistan. The site is located at the foot of the Rohri hills where a fort (the fort of Kot Diji) was built around 1790 by Mir Suhrab, the ruler of the Talpur dynasty of Upper Sindh, who ruled from 1783 to 1830 AD. Built on the ridge of a narrow narrow hill, this fort is well preserved.
Brief Description of Alamgirpur Site: Alamgirpur is an archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization dating to the Harappan period located along the Yamuna River (3300-1300 BC) in Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the easternmost site of civilization. This place was also called Parasaram-Kheera.
Brief description of Surkotada site: Surkotada or 'Surkotda' is located in the Kutch district of Gujarat. Evidence of the expansion of Harappan civilization has been found from this site. It was discovered by 'Jagpati Joshi' in 1964, from this site the remains of 'decline of Indus Civilization' are reflected. There was a huge mound here. In the excavation done here, a fort was found, which was made of raw bricks and mud. Outside the wall there was a rough stone wall.
The pottery belongs to the Indus civilization. Here a grave covered with a large size rock has been found. This tomb is of a completely new type in the tradition known so far in the Sandhava corpse-immersion tradition.
|A. Ranganatha Rao
Brief Description of Rangpur Site: Rangpur is situated in the Kathiawar peninsula of Gujarat near the Sukbhadar River. This site was excavated in the year 1953-1954 by A. Ranganatha Rao. The remains of the pre-Harappan culture have been found here. Raw brick forts, drains, pottery, weights, stone panels etc. found from Rangpur are important. Heaps of rice bran found here.
This historical place is situated in the Gohilwad province, a little upstream from the place where the Sukbhadar river falls into the west sea. The remains of the Indus Valley Civilization were brought to light by excavations from this place in 1935 and 1947. From the remains of the first excavation here, scholars have understood that these are the signs of the southernmost expansion of the Harappan civilization, whose time is about 2000 BC. Should be.
In the month of January of 1944 AD, the Archaeological Department again excavated here, due to which many remains were found. The main ones were - ornate and smooth pottery, on which there are pictures of deer and other animals; Guri and sun-dried bricks made of gold and precious stones. From here, traces of drains and rooms have also been found under the surface of the land.
Brief description of Balakot site: Balakot is an important place of the Indus Valley civilization, where excavations have found a furnace built of two and a half thousand BC, which probably used to manufacture ceramic objects. Balakot is a city located on the banks of the Kunhar River (Nainsukh River) in the Kaghan Valley of the Mansehra District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province in the northern part of Pakistan.
It was completely destroyed in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and then it was rebuilt with the help of Saudi Arabian subsidiary institutions.
|George F. dales
Brief Description of Sotkakoh Site: Sotkakoh is a Harappan site on the Makran coast near the town of Pasni in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. It was first discovered in 1960 by American archaeologist George F. The survey was carried out by the Dales, while the flora was discovered along the Makran coast. This site is located about 15 miles north of Pasni.
|R. S. Bisht
Brief description of Banawali site: Banawali is an archaeological site located in Hisar district of the Indian state of Haryana, which is related to the Indus Valley Civilization. It is 120 km from Kalibanga and 16 km from Fatehabad. The city was situated on the banks of the Rangoi River. Kalibanga was situated in the lower valley of Saraswati while this city was situated in its upper valley.
Important facts about Indus Valley Civilization:
- The first civilization of India is the Indus Valley Civilization.
- Indus civilization was discovered in 1921-22 AD by Rai Bahadur Sahni and Rakhal Das Banerjee under the patronage of British officer Sir John Marshall.
- The mounds of Mohenjodaro, also known as the mound of the dead. It was discovered by Rakhal Das Banerjee in 1922.
- The city of Chanhudado was first discovered by Gopal Mazumdar in 1931.
- Lothal was excavated in 1957-58 by Ranganatha Rao.
- Ropad was excavated in 1953-56 by Yagyadutt Sharma.
- Kalibanga was excavated in 1953 by BB Lal and BK Thapar.
- Banwali was excavated in 1953 by BB Lal and BK Thapar.
- Surkotada was discovered by Oren Stein in 1927.
- Rangpura was excavated in 1951-53 AD by Madhoswarup Vats BB Lal SR Rao.
- The Indus Civilization is currently called the Harappan Civilization.
- The Harappan civilization is called Hariupiya in the Rigveda.
- Indus garden is said to be the site of Mohenjodaro in the Harappan civilization.
- The shape of the entire area of the Harappan civilization was triangular.
- The currency of the Harappan civilization was made of clay.
- The currency of the Harappan civilization was rectangular.
- Most of the Harappan seals bear the picture of sod
- Indus Civilization is called Indus Ghati Civilization, Harappan Civilization and Civil Civilization.
- Most of the cities of the Indus civilization were situated on the banks of rivers.
- In the Indus civilization, there is evidence of the use of carved bricks from Kalibanga.
- The largest building of the Indus civilization is the Annagara of Mohenjodaro.
- The ratio of the length and width and height of the bricks used in the Indus civilization was 4:2:1 respectively.
- Meluha was the old name of the Indus region
- Harappa and Mohenjodaro were the first two major sites of the Indus civilization.
- Harappa city was situated on the banks of river Ravi
- Lothal was situated on the bank of Bhogwa river
- Mohenjodaro was situated on the banks of Indus river
- After independence, most sites of Harappan civilization were discovered in Gujarat.
- The Harappans were the original inhabitants of Phoenicia.
- The credit for the cultivation of cotton goes to the Harappans for the first time.
- A huge bath is situated in Mohenjodarde.
- The remains of the elliptical carcass are found from Surkotada.
- In a tomb, two bodies were found from Lothal wrapped together.
- A bronze statue of a dancer was found from Mohenjodaro.
- The head of the priest was found from Mohenjodaro.
- Lothal was the main port of Indus civilization
- The people of the Indus civilization used the grid method for the construction of cities and houses.
- The inhabitants of the Indus civilization used to eat both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food.
- The inhabitants of the Indus civilization used to wear both cotton and woolen clothes.
- The Indus civilization used two wheeled and four wheeled well carts for human movement.
- The inhabitants of the Indus civilization used to play chess, music, dance, and gambling etc. for entertainment.
- The inhabitants of the Indus civilization used to worship Mother Goddess and Shivling.
- The people of Indus civilization worshiped the earth as the goddess of fertility.
- Evidence of the practice of tree worship and Shiva worship also comes from the Indus civilization.
- The Swastika symbol is a product of the Harappan civilization.
- The humpbacked sod in animals was a special reverence for the people of this civilization.
- Indus people considered Val as a symbol of power.
- Indus people did not know about horse
- Bead making factories have been received from Lothal and Chanhudaro.
- The remains of a horse's tooth have been found in Mohenjodaro.
- Oyster from Mohenjodaro and elephant from Lothal. One scale made from teeth has been found.
- Remains of miniature horse figurines have been found in Lothal.
- Evidence of plowing field has been found from Kalibanga.
- The first evidence of rice has been found from Lothal.
- The people of the Indus civilization used to make red clay pots designed in black.
- The people of the Indus civilization were not familiar with the sword.
- Kalibanga was the only Harappan site whose lower town was also surrounded by forts.
- Purdah system and prostitution were prevalent in the Saidhav civilization.
- Both the practices of burying and burning dead bodies were prevalent.
- The first evidence of Havanakund was found in Kalibanga and Lothal.
- The earliest evidence of agriculture in India was found from Mehrgarh
- Indus people used to use Toba metal more.
- Indus people did not have knowledge of iron metal
- The doors and windows of the houses did not open towards the road but opened towards the backyard.
- Only the doors of the houses of Lothal Nagar opened towards the road.
- Indus people used honey for sweetness.
- The length of the roads of Mohenjodaro was 400 meters and the width was 10 meters.
- The main occupation of the Indus people was agriculture and animal husbandry.
- The Harappans used to trade with the Sumer country.
- The destruction of the Indus civilization is attributed to floods, droughts or foreign invasions.
- Due to the use of bronze for the first time, it is also called bronze civilization.
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