Battle of Kalinga:
When did the Kalinga war take place?
The famous Battle of Kalinga was fought between Emperor Ashoka and Kalinga ruler Anant Nathan in 261-262 BC on the banks of the Daya River, 8 km south of Bhubaneshwar. Kalinga was then located in Odisha, Andhrakalinga, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and parts of Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.
What is the importance of Kalinga war in Indian history?
There have been many such wars in Indian history which changed the history itself. One such war was the Kalinga war. It changed the entire period of Indian history. This war is said to be the worst war in Indian history. Chakravarti Emperor Ashoka attacked Kalinga in the 8th year (261 BC) of his coronation. Kalinga conquest was his last victory. The devastation of the war left the emperor heartbroken and he was attracted to Buddhist ideology in an attempt to make atonement.
The Kalinga war made a great change in the heart of Ashoka. His heart was stirred with kindness and compassion for humanity. He promised to stop the war activities forever. From here began the era of spiritual and Dhamma conquest. He accepted Buddhism as his religion.
History of Kalinga:
- The present state of Orissa was famous as Kalinga in ancient times.
- Earlier it was a part of the kingdom of Nanda dynasty ruler Mahapadmananda.
- Magadha was separated from the empire for some time, but it was again conquered by Ashoka in the eighth year of his accession to the throne. In this war, Kalingaites gave extraordinary resistance to Ashoka's army.
- One lakh people of Kalinga were killed, one and a half lakh were taken captive and many more died in the aftermath of the destruction caused by the war.
Seeing this destruction, Ashoka was inclined towards victory of religion instead of war.
- At the place called Dhaulagiri where Ashoka's army camped and later where he took initiation of Buddhism, there is now an attractive stupa, temple and inscriptions.
- Kalinga witnessed many changes in the following centuries. Sometimes Kharavela became the ruler here and sometimes it was found in the Gupta Empire.
- For a short time in the 6th-7th century, the power here also remained in the hands of Harshavardhana.
- Ananthavarma Chodaganga was the chief king of the Eastern Ganga dynasty. He ruled Kalinga for 71 years (1076-1147 AD).
Major Causes of Kalinga War:
- Ashoka, who conquered Kalinga, wanted to expand his empire.
- Even from a strategic point of view, Kalinga was very important. Kalinga had control over the routes leading to South India by both land and sea.
- From here, relations with the South-Eastern countries could be easily made.
Results of Kalinga War:
- The Maurya Empire expanded. Its capital was made Toshali.
- This put an end to the policy of expansion of Ashoka's empire.
- It had a great impact on the life of Ashoka. He adopted the path of non-violence, truth, love, charity, charity.
- Ashoka became a follower of Buddhism. He also propagated Buddhism.
- He devoted his resources to the welfare of the people.
- He established the 'Dhamma'.
- He made friendly relations with other countries.
- The Kalinga War led to the downfall of the Maurya Empire. Due to the policy of non-violence, his soldiers started lagging behind in the art of warfare. As a result, its decline gradually started.
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