What is called blood (blood)?
The circulating fluid in the human body that collects in the heart through the veins and again circulates through the arteries from the heart to the whole body is called blood. The blood flowing in the blood vessels is usually thick, slightly viscous and red in colour. It is a living tissue. Blood is made up of plasma and blood particles. Plasma is a non-living and liquid medium in which blood particles float. It is through plasma that the blood particles keep reaching the whole body. The 'blood circulation system' is the transport system of the human body, through which food, oxygen, water and all other essential substances reach the tissue cells and waste materials are carried there. It includes blood, heart and blood vessels.
What is the amount of blood (blood) in the human body? Blood volume in human body: The amount of blood in the human body is about 7 to 8% of the body weight. Therefore, a healthy human body contains about 5 to 6 liters of blood, which is about 9/13th of his total body weight. The amount of blood in the body of women is about 4 to 5 liters.
Composition of blood (blood): On the basis of composition, human blood is divided into two parts-
- Plasma: About 55 to 60% by volume.
- Blood corpuscles or blood cells: about 40 to 45% of the body.
Different components of blood:
- Plasma: It is the liquid part of blood of light yellow color, consisting of 90 percent water, 8 percent protein and 1 percent salt.
- Red Blood Cells: It is spherical, nucleated and contains haemoglobin. Its main function is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. Its life span is 120 days.
- White Blood Cells: It lacks hemoglobin. Its main function is to increase the body's immunity to protect itself from pathogens. Their lifespan is 24 to 30 hours.
- Platelets: These blood cells are nucleated and of uncertain shape. Their main function is to help the blood to clot.
Types of Blood Groups: The blood group was discovered by Landsteiner. Blood group was first reported in 1901, since then many interesting and interesting researches have been done about it. There are 8 types of blood groups - A, B, AB and O positive or negative. Only persons with the same blood group can exchange blood. Blood group differences are due to molecules found in the blood, called antigens and antibodies. Antigens are found on the surface of red blood cells found in the blood and antibodies are found in the blood plasma. The blood group commonly found in people is genetic. There are eight types of blood groups: A, B, AB and O positive or negative.
- A positive A(+): People who have blood group A positive are seen to have good leadership abilities. People with A positive blood group can lead well. He believes in taking everyone along and winning everyone's trust. If your blood group is A positive then you can have A positive, A negative, O positive and O negative blood group blood.
- A negative A(-): People with A negative blood group are considered hardworking. Such people do not hold back from working hard. They have no qualms in working hard and continuously. These people believe that there is no substitute for hard work. People whose blood group is A negative can only be given blood of people with A negative and O negative.
- AB Positive AB(+): People with this blood group are not easily understood. It is very difficult to understand such people, no one knows when they can think. Because their nature is never the same. AB is a positive universal receiver. That is, any blood can be given to him AB positive, AB negative, O positive, O negative, A positive, A negative and B positive and B negative.
- AB negative AB (-): People with AB negative blood group have a very fast brain, these people are considered very intelligent. People of this blood group easily understand something. Their mind understands all those things, which people usually ignore. Such people can be given AB negative, A negative, B negative and O negative blood group if needed.
- O Positive O (+): People of O positive blood group are believed to be born to help people. Such people do not hold back in helping others and can also spend their life in helping others. O positives are called universal donors, but when you have to receive blood, they can only be given O negative and O positive blood.
- O negative 0(-): People of this blood group have narrow thinking. People with O negative blood group do not think much about others, because their mind does not care for anyone other than themselves. Such people are narrow minded. These people do not accept new ideas easily. People with O negative can only receive O negative blood.
- B Positive B(+): The heart of such people is like a river to others. People with this blood group do not hold back in helping others and can even make sacrifices for others. Relationships mean a lot to these people. They always want to do something for someone. People with B positive blood group can be given blood of B positive, B negative, O positive and O negative blood group.
- B negative B(-): The tendency of people with this blood group is not considered good. Such people are selfish and think of themselves more than others. Such people do not believe in helping anyone. The attitude of these people is also negative. People with B negative can only be given blood of B negative and O negative blood group if needed.
Main functions of blood (blood): Following are the main functions of blood in human body:-
- Transport of nutrients: The blood carries the digested and absorbed nutrients in the alimentary canal to different parts of the body.
- Transport of Oxygen: Blood carries oxygen (O2) from the respiratory organs (lungs etc.) to various cells of the body.
- Transport of carbon dioxide: The CO2 produced during cellular respiration is carried by the blood to the trachea, from where it is expelled.
- Transport of excretory substances: The blood carries harmful substances like ammonia, urea, uric acid etc. produced in the body to the excretory organs (kidneys), from where they are removed from the body.
- Transport of other substances: Hormones, enzymes and antibodies secreted by the endocrine glands are transferred to different parts of the blood.
- Protection from diseases: As soon as any part of the body is attacked by harmful bacteria, viruses and microbes etc., the white blood cells of the blood destroy them by eating them. Antibodies present in the blood form antitoxin, neutralize toxic and foreign incompatible substances and break them down.
- Control of body temperature: Blood performs an important function of maintaining uniformity in different parts of the body by regulating the temperature. When the heat begins to rise as a result of very rapid metabolism in the more active parts of the body, blood flows more heavily into the blood vessels of the skin to cool itself and the body.
- Cleansing the body: The white blood cells of the blood destroy the dead and broken cells by eating waste and other useless things. In this way the blood performs the function of cleaning the body.
- Blood clotting or clotting: Blood clotting works to prevent blood from flowing out when a blood vessel is ruptured due to injury. The thrombocytes of the blood are helpful in this action.
- Wound Healing: Blood helps in repairing the broken parts of the body by transporting essential substances and healing the wounds in the injured parts.
Control of the internal environment of the body: The blood maintains the proper internal environment of the body by establishing coordination between different parts of the body.
- Genetic Role: Blood antigen plays an important role at the genetic level.
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