Body systems:

Different types of tissues together make up the different organs of the body. Similarly, different organs performing similar functions together form an organ system. Many organ systems together make up an organism. Humans have 11 different organ systems, which form the basis of human anatomy and physiology. The 11 organ systems include the respiratory system, digestive and excretory systems, circulatory system, urinary system, integumentary system, skeletal system, musculoskeletal system, nervous system and reproductive system.

There are other systems in the body that are not organ systems. For example, the immune system protects the organism from infection, but it is not an organ system because it is not made up of organs. Some organs are in more than one system. For example, the nose is in both the respiratory system and is also a sensory organ in the nervous system. Both the testes and ovaries are part of the reproductive system and endocrine system.

Various systems of the human body and their sub-systems or constituent organs:

Body system Constituent parts
Respiratory system Human nose, human mouth, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs and thoracic diaphragm
Digestive system /excretory system Human teeth, human teeth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, small intestine ), large intestine, rectum, and anus
Circulatory system Blood/cardiovascular/vascular blood, heart, arteries, veins, capillaries
Urinary system /Renal/urinary tract Kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra
Cole's System Skin, hair, exocrine glands, fat and nails
Skeletal system Bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons.
Muscular system Skeletal muscles, smooth muscles and cardiac muscle.
Endocrine system Hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands, ovaries, testes.
Lymphatic system lymph, lymph nodes, lymph vessels, tonsils, spleen, thymus
Nervous system The brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs and the following sensory systems (nerve sub-systems): visual system, olfactory system, taste (taste system - gustatory system), hearing (auditory system - auditory system)
Reproductive system Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, penis, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles ) and prostate

Names of body's organ systems and their functions:

  1. Respiratory system: The respiratory system includes nasal antrum, trachea, bronchus, lungs. Oxygen reaches every part of the body through breathing and carbon dioxide comes out. Blood helps in the respiratory system. Veins carry impure blood and arteries carry pure blood to various organs.
  2. Digestive system/excretory system: Digestive system consists of mouth, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, small intestine, large intestine, etc. Digestion of food takes place in the digestive system. In food we mainly take protein, carbohydrate and fat. They are digested by the presence of enzymes and acids in the digestive system.
  3. Circulatory system / heart / vascular: The circulatory system is the set of organs that transport nutrients between the cells of the body. It protects the body from diseases and keeps the body temperature and pH stable. Amino acids, electrolytes, gases, hormones, blood cells and waste products of nitrogen etc. are transported through the circulatory system. Some consider only the blood-distribution network to be the vascular system, while others include the lymphatic system as well.
  4. Urinary system/renal/urinary tract: The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The urinary system aims at removing waste from the body. Regulates blood volume and blood pressure, controls levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulates blood pH.
  5. Cole's system: The integumentary system or cole's system is the set of organs that make up the outermost layer of an animal's body. It includes the skin and its appendages, which act as a physical barrier between the external environment and the internal environment that serves to protect and maintain it.
  6. Skeletal system: The human body is made up of a total of 206 bones. The structure made of bones is called skeletal system. Bones are connected to each other by joints. The bone of the head is called the cranial cavity.
  7. Muscular system: The muscles are located under the skin. There are more than 500 muscles in the entire human body. These are of two types. Voluntary muscles become constricted according to the will of man. Involuntary muscle contractions are not controlled by human will.
  8. Endocrine system: The ductless glands present in different parts of the body are called endocrine system. Hormones are made in these and all the chemical actions of the body are controlled by these hormones. Example- thyroid gland, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal etc. The pituitary gland is also called the master gland. It controls other glands except parathyroid gland.
  9. Lymphatic system: Lymph glands destroy toxic and harmful substances and prevent them from mixing in pure blood. The lymphatic system is a network of small thin vessels. Lymphocytes glands destroy toxic and harmful substances and prevent pure blood from mixing.
  10. Nervous system: The nervous system controls the activities of various organs and the whole organism. The nervous system controls muscle contraction, gland secretion, heart function, metabolism and many activities that take place continuously in the organism. It includes the brain, spinal cord and nerves.
  11. Reproductive system: All organisms have the ability to produce offspring similar to themselves. The reproductive system of male and female is made up of different organs.

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Human Body FAQs:

HIV attacks and gradually weakens the body's immune system that fights infection and disease. The immune system of a person suffering from HIV becomes weak and health problems start surrounding him.

Consumers are those who depend on producers for their energy. They are not capable of generating their own energy. To obtain an accurate energy source supply, consumers always look to producers and are completely dependent on them.

There are approximately 37.2 trillion (37.2 x 10^12) nerve cells in the human body. This figure is an average value and includes the number of all nerve cells in the body, including muscle cells, nerve cells, blood cells, brain cells, and all other cells.

An operating system is a set of software that controls the transmission of data and instructions. It acts as a bridge between hardware and software and is the software component of a computer. With its help, the programs installed in the computer run.

Maltose is the end product of starch digestion in the gut. The end products of digestion are absorbed into the body through the villi epithelial layer of the intestines. Undigested food (feces) enters the cecum of the large intestine through the ileocecal valve, which prevents fecal matter from flowing backwards.

  Last update :  Tue 13 Sep 2022
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