Arrival of European trading companies in India:
The sea routes to India were discovered in the late 15th century, after which Europeans started coming to India. Although Europeans managed to colonize many places other than India, the main attraction of many of them was India. The influx of foreigners from Europe into India was happening since ancient times. Attracted by the commercial wealth here, many European nations kept coming from time to time.
Under this effort, Columbus set out in search of a sea route from Spain to India and later reached America. 'Bartholemue Diaz' reached 'Hope Cape' in 1487 AD. On May 17, 1498, Vasco da Gama discovered a new sea route to India by reaching Calicut, a port located on the western coast of India.
When was the Portuguese born in India?
The Portuguese were the first to come to India in the modern period. Pope Alexander VI granted the Portuguese a monopoly of trade in the eastern seas by an edict. The first Portuguese and the first European traveler, Vasco da Gama, landed on the coast of Calicut (India) in 1498 AD with the help of a pioneer from Gujarat named 'Abdul Manik' after a 90-day voyage.
On March 09, 1500, Pedro lvarez Cabral, the leader of a fleet of 13 ships, set sail for India from Lisbon by waterway. He was the second Portuguese traveler to visit India after Vasco da Gama. Portuguese merchants established their trading centers in India in the ports of Calicut, Goa, Daman, Diu and Hooghly. The Portuguese established their first fort in Cochin (India) in 1503 AD with the aim of gaining a monopoly on the trade of pepper and spices of the eastern world.
In 1505 AD, 'Francisco de Alameda' came to India as the first Portuguese Viceroy. He gave more importance to maritime policy and tried to strengthen the position of Portuguese in the Indian Ocean. In 1509, Almeida captured Diu by defeating the combined forces of Egypt, Turkey and Gujarat. After this success, the Indian Ocean was transformed into the Portuguese Sea. Alameda remained in India till 1509 AD.
When did the Dutch arrive in India?
Seeing the prosperity of the Portuguese, the Dutch were also attracted to India and Sri Lanka. The Dutch came to India for the first time. In 1602 AD, the Dutch East India Company was established according to the order of the Dutch Parliament. In 1602, the Dutch captured Amboyna by defeating the Portuguese.
After this, in 1612 in Sri Lanka, the Dutch expelled the Portuguese. They established their kothis at Pulicat (1610), Surat (1616), Chinsurah (1653), Qasim Bazar, Baranagar, Patna, Balasore (Orissa), Nagapatnam (1659) and Cochin (1653). The Dutch exported important items from India like indigo, saltpeter, cotton, silk, opium, etc.
In the 18th century, Dutch power began to weaken in front of the British. Between the British and the Dutch, there was the Battle of Bedra in 1759 AD, in which the Dutch power was completely destroyed, till 1795, the British expelled them from India.
When did the British arrive in India?
The British were the most influential of all the trading companies that came from Europe. The East India Company was granted a charter by Queen Elizabeth I of England on 31 December 1600, under which they could trade with India for 15 years. In 1615 AD, James I made Sir Thomas Roe his ambassador and brought him to the court of Jahangir. The sole purpose of Thomas Roe was to make trade treaties with Jahangir and to open trading centers in different parts.
The first kothi (factory) in India was opened by the British in Surat and the first commercial kothi on the southwest coast was established at Masulipatnam in 1611. Received in dowry from the Portuguese, Mumbai was given to the Company in 1668 by Charles II on an annual rent of 10 pounds. In 1698 AD, the British acquired the zamindari of Sutanati, Calicut and Govindpur for 1200 rupees, which later developed and emerged as Calcutta, which was called Fort William. Sir Charles Eyre became the first president of Fort William in 1700 AD.
When did Dennis arrive in India?
Denmark's Dennis East India Company was established in 1616 AD. This company failed to consolidate its position in India and finally by 1845 sold all its assets to the British and left. The Denis had established some of their factories and settlements in Troncobar (Tamil Nadu) in 1620 AD and Serampore (Bengal) in 1676 AD, in which Serampore was the main one.
When did the French arrive in India?
The first French company was established in 1664 AD by the efforts of Colbert, minister of the French Emperor Louis XIV, it was called 'Compagne des Indes Orientales'. In 1668 AD, Franco Caro opened the first factory in Surat after receiving a decree from Aurangzeb.
The second Kothi was opened by the French in Masulipatnam in 1669 AD. Francis Martin obtained the village of Purducherry from Sher Khan, the Subedar of Valikondapur in 1673, which led to the foundation of Pondicherry. Martin founded Pondicherry and was its first chief.
Important facts related to the arrival of European companies in India:
- On May 20, 1498, Vasco da Gama discovered a new sea route between India and Europe by reaching the port of Calicut on the west coast of India.
- In 1505, Francisco de Almora came to India as the first Portuguese Viceroy.
- In 1509 AD, Alphonso de Alburk became the Viceroy of the Portuguese in India.
- Albuquerque conquered Goa from Yusuf Adil Shah of Bijapur in 1510 AD.
- The Portuguese opened their first trading house in Cochin.
- The first Dutch citizen to come to India in 1596 AD was - Cornelis Dahstmann.
- The last fall of the Dutch in India happened in 1759 AD due to the Vedra war between the British and the Dutch.
- On 31st December, 1600 AD, Queen Elizabeth I of England granted a charter to the East India Company.
- Initially the East India Company had 217 partners and the first governor was Thomas Smith.
- The first Englishman to go to the Mughal court was Captain Hawkins. Who went to the court of Jahangir in 1609 AD as the ambassador of James I.
- In 1615 AD, Emperor James I sent Sir Thomas Roe as his ambassador to the court of Mughal Emperor Jahangir.
- The first trading kothi (factory) of the British was opened in Surat in 1608 AD.
- In 1611 AD, the British first established a trading kothi in Musalipatam on the southeast coast.
- In 1668, due to the marriage of King Charles II of England to Princess Catherine of Portugal, Charles received Bombay as a dowry. Which he gave to the East India Company at the rent of a pound.
- In 1698 AD, the English East India Company acquired the Zamindari of three villages - Sutanuti, Calicut and Gobindpur on payment of 1200 rupees and built Fort William here. Later this city was called Calcutta (Kolkata), whose foundation was laid by George Charnock.
- The first French court in India was established by Fanco Cairo in Surat in 1668 AD.
- Pondicherry was founded by Francis Martin in 1674 AD.
- The First Carnatic War was influenced by the Austrian War of Succession in 1746-48. Austria's succession war ended in 1748 by the Treaty of A-La Schaple, and under this treaty ended the First Carnatic War.
- The Second Carnatic War took place in 1749-1754 AD. The French governor Dupleix was defeated in this battle. He was recalled and Godehu was made the next French governor in India in his place. The armistice came with the Treaty of Pondicherry (January, 1755 AD).
- The Third War of Carnatic took place between 1756-1763 AD, which was a part of the Seven Years' War that started in 1756 AD. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris.
- In 1760 AD, the English army under the leadership of Sir Ayrkoot badly defeated the French in the battle of Wandiwash.
- In 1761 AD, the British snatched Pondicherry from the French.
- By the Treaty of Paris in 1763 AD, the British returned the remaining territories except Chandranagar, which were under French occupation till 1749 AD, these territories remained in the possession of the French till the independence of India.
Person Affiliated With European Trading Company:
|Vasco da Gama
|First European traveler to India
|Pedro Alvarez Cabral
|Second Portuguese to come to India
|Francisco de Almeida
|First Portuguese Governor of India
|First British citizen to visit India
|The first English envoy who met Emperor Jahangir
|Founder of Bombay
|Founder of Calcutta
|First Administrator of Fort William (Calcutta)
|The messenger of the new British company 'Trading in the East' established in 1638 AD, who appeared in the court of Aurangzeb for trading privileges
|First French Governor of Pondicherry
|Founder of madras
|Zamindar of Bardhaman, who rebelled against the British in 1690
|Zamindar of Kalita, Govindpur and Sutanati
|The head of the delegation who received special trade facilities from the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar
|Chairman of the first delegation to reach Akbar's court
|It established the first French factory in India in Surat.
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