List of Major Dynasties and Rulers of Delhi Sultanate Period

History of Delhi Sultanate Period:

Delhi Sultanate (from 1210 to 1526) is the reign of 5 dynasty sultans who ruled India. Of the five dynasties that ruled the Delhi Sultanate, four were originally Turks, while the last dynasty was Afghan. These five dynasties are the Ghulam dynasty (1206–1290), the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1423), the Sayyid dynasty (1424–1452), and the Lodi dynasty (1452–1526). Qutb-ud-din Aibak, the slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of this dynasty. Aibak's empire extended to the whole of North India.

After this the Khilji dynasty occupied central India but failed to organize the Indian subcontinent. This sultanate not only destroyed and desecrated many temples in South Asia, but it played an important role in the rise of Indo-Islamic architecture. The Delhi Sultanate is one of the few periods in Muslim history where a woman took power. This empire came to an end in 1526 by the Mughal Sultanate.

Rulers of the Slave Dynasty and their reign:

Ruler of slave dynasty Reign period
Qutbuddin Aibak 1206 -1210
Aramshah 1210
Iltutmis 1210 - 1236
Ruknuddin 1236
Razia 1236 - 1240
Bahramshah 1240 - 1242
Masood Shah 1242 - 1246
Naseeruddin Mahmud 1246 - 1266
Ghiyasuddin Balban 1266 - 1287
Kaiqubad 1287 - 1290

Important facts about Slave Dynasty:

  • The founder of the Ghulam dynasty was Qutbuddin Aibak, a slave of Muhammad Ghori.
  • Qutubuddin Aibak was called Lakh Bakhsh (the giver of millions) for his generosity.
  • The construction of Qutub Minar was started by Qutbuddin Aibak in the memory of Sufi saint 'Sheikh Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki' which was later completed by Iltutmis.
  • Qutbuddin Aibak had built a mosque called Adhai Din Ka Jhopda in Ajmer.
  • Qutbuddin Aibak died after falling from a horse while playing Chogam.
  • Iltutmis shifted his capital from Lahore to Delhi.
  • Iltutmis completed the construction of the top two storeys of Qutub Minar.
  • Iltutmis had formed an organization of 40 slave chieftains which was called 'Turkan-i-Chihalgani'.
  • Razia was the first female Sultan to ascend the throne of Delhi.
  • Razia Sultan was married to Altunia.
  • Nasiruddin Muhammad was such a sultan who earns his livelihood by selling the Koran by copying it and wearing a cap.
  • Ghiyasuddin Balwan was a cruel ruler of Delhi Sultanate, he adopted the policy of 'iron and blood' with his opponents.
  • Balvan started the practice of Sijda (bowing salutations) and Pabos (touching the feet of the Sultan). And started the 'Navroz festival' of the Persian tradition.

Rulers of Khilji dynasty and their reign:

Rulers of Khilji Dynasty Reign Period
Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji 1290-1296
Alauddin Khilji 1296- 1316
Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah 1316- 1320
Nasiruddin Khusro Shah 1320

Important facts about Khilji dynasty:

  • Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji founded the Khilji dynasty by killing the last ruler of the slave dynasty.
  • Firoz Khilji was murdered by his nephew and son-in-law Alauddin Khilji.
  • Encouraged by his success, Alauddin Khilji assumed the title of 'Sikandar-i-Sani' or Sikandar II.
  • Jizya tax (from non-Muslims), zakat tax (religious tax 40th of the property) and housing and grazing tax was also collected by Alauddin Khilji.
  • Alauddin appointed an officer named Diwan-i-Riyasat to control the market.
  • After the death of Alauddin Khilji, a eunuch named Malik Kafur put a 6-year-old boy, Shahabuddin Umar, on the throne.
  • In the greed of power, Malik Kafur blinded Shahavuddin and started ruling himself.
  • Malik Kafur could enjoy the pleasure of power only for 35 days, Mubarak Shah Khilji got him killed.
  • After becoming the sultan, Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah became a victim of laziness, luxury, lust etc.
  • Mubarak Shah used to come to the court with naked men and women and sometimes he himself used to run naked in the court.
  • Khusro Shah converted to Hinduism and became a Muslim and he himself assumed the title of 'Commander of the Prophet'.
  • Ghazi Malik Tughlaq defeated Khusrau in battle and established the Tughlaq dynasty.

Rulers of Tughlaq dynasty and their reign:

Rulers of Tughlaq Dynasty Reign Period
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq Shah 1320 - 1325
Muhammad bin Tughluq 1325- 1351
Firoz Tughlaq 1351- 1388
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq II 1388 - 1389
Abu vakr 1389
Naseeruddin Muhammad Shah 1390 - 1394
Alauddin Sikandar Shah 1394
Naseeruddin Mahmud Shah 1394 - 1414

Important facts about Tughlaq dynasty:

  • Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty, used the word Ghazi (destroyer of infidels) with his name.
  • Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq got wells and canals constructed for irrigation. It was probably the first Sultan who got the canals built.
  • After the death of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, his son Jauna Khan Muhammad bin Tughlaq ascended the throne.
  • Muhammad bin Tughlaq was the most educated and learned among all the Sultans of Delhi.
  • Muhammad bin Tughlaq made various controversial policies to govern, which failed.
  • Major unsuccessful policies of Muhammad bin Tughlaq - 1. Increase of tax in the Doab region, 2. Change of capital from Delhi to Devagiri, 3. The use of symbolic currency, 4. Expedition of Khorasan and Karachil.
  • It was during the time of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that two brothers named Harihar and Bukka established the Vijayanagara Empire.
  • The African traveler Ibn Battuta came to India during the time of Muhammad bin Tughlaq.
  • On the death of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, historian Badayuni wrote - 'The king got freedom from his subjects and the subjects got freedom from their king'.
  • During his reign, Firoz Shah Tughlaq abolished 24 painful taxes and collected only four taxes like Kharach (Rage), Khums (Spoils in war), Jizya, Zakat.
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq was the first Sultan to impose Jizya tax on Brahmins also.
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq brought Ashoka pillar from Khizrabad (Topra) and Meerut and got it established in Delhi.
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq defeated Bhanudev, the ruler of Jajnagar (Orissa) and destroyed the Jagannath temple.
  • Firoz Shah demolished the Jwalamukhi temple at Nagarkot and looted 1300 texts and got some Persian translations done, which was named Dalayate - Firozshahi.
  • Firoz Shah Tughlaq wrote his autobiography 'Futuhat-e-Firozshahi'.
  • Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah was the last ruler of Tughlaq dynasty.
  • During the reign of Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah, Timurlang attacked Delhi.

Rulers of Sayyid dynasty and their reign:

Rulers of Sayyid Dynasty Reign Period
Khizr Khan 1414- 1421
Mubarak Khan 1421- 1434
Muhammad Shah 1434- 1445
Alauddin Alamshah 1445 - 1450

Important facts about Sayyid dynasty:

  • Khizr Khan, the founder of the Sayyid dynasty, did not accept the title of Sultan, he was satisfied with the name of 'Raiyat-i-Aala'.
  • After the death of Khizr Khan, his son Mubarak Khan ascended the throne and assumed the title Shah.
  • In the court of Mubarak Shah, the famous writer was Sirhindi who wrote 'Tarikh-e-Mubarak Shahi'.
  • Mubarak Shah had built a city named Mubarakabad on the banks of Yamuna.

Rulers of the Lodi dynasty and their reign:

Rulers of the Lodi Dynasty Reign Period
Bahlol Lodi 1451 - 1489
Sikandar Lodi 1489 - 1517
Ibrahim Lodi 1517 - 1526

Important facts about the Lodi dynasty:

  • Bahlol Lodi was the first Afghan ruler to sit on the throne of Delhi. He assumed the title 'Bahlol Shah Ghazi'.
  • Bahlol Lodi's son Nizam Khan ascended the throne with the title 'Sultan Sikandar Shah Lodi'.
  • Sikandar Lodi founded the city of Agra in 1504 AD and made it his capital.
  • A measure of measurement 'Gaj-e-Sikandari' was introduced by Sikandar Shah Lodi.
  • Sikandar Lodi broke the idols of the Jwalamukhi temple and gave the meat to the butchers for weighing.
  • On the orders of Sikandar Lodi, the Sanskrit text 'Ayurveda' was translated into Persian by the name 'Farhange-Sikandari'.
  • After the death of Sikandar Lodi of throat cancer, his son Ibrahim Lodi ascended the throne.
  • Ibrahim Lodi's uncle Alam Khan and Punjab ruler Daulat Khan Lodi had invited Kabul's ruler Babur to attack Delhi.
  • The first battle of Panipath took place between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi on 21 April 1526 in which Ibrahim Lodi was badly defeated.
  • Ibrahim Lodi was killed in the same battle and the Sultanate period of Delhi came to an end.
  • Babur established the Mughal Empire in Delhi by killing Ibrahim Lodi.

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Delhi Sultanate FAQs:

The court language of the Delhi Sultanate was indeed Arabic. It was used for official purposes and in the royal court.

Alauddin Khilji was the longest reigning Sultan of the slave dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. He assumed his autocratic rule after becoming the Sultan in 1296 AD and ruled till 1316 AD.

Ibrahim Lodi' was the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate and the Delhi Sultanate. His reign lasted from 1517 AD to 1526 AD.

There is no historical reference to a specific "Khilji Suturk" during the Delhi Sultanate. However, the Khilji dynasty under Sultan Alauddin Khilji ruled Delhi during the 13th and 14th centuries.

The two descendants were Ghulam and Tughlaq, who ruled immediately before and after the Khilji rulers.

  Last update :  Wed 7 Sep 2022
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