Definition of disease:
Rog (disease) means to be unwell, that is, to be uncomfortable. In other words, different parts of the body are not working properly. Genetic disorder, hormonal imbalance, disease immune system not working properly are some of the factors that affect the health of human beings. Diseases caused by internal sources are called organic or metabolic diseases, such as heart attack, kidney failure, diabetes, allergies, cancer etc. And among diseases caused by external factors, Kwashiorkor, obesity, night blindness, scurvy etc. are prominent. . Some diseases are also caused by micro-organisms like viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, worms, insects etc. due to unbalanced diet. Environmental pollutants, tobacco, alcohol and drugs are some of the other important external factors that affect human health.
Types of diseases:
There are two types of diseases on the basis of nature, properties and causes of spread:
1. Congenital diseases: Such diseases are said to be present in the newborn from the time of birth. These diseases are caused by genetic abnormalities or metabolic disorders or due to improper functioning of an organ. These are basically permanent diseases which are usually not easily remedied, e.g. diseases like cleft lip (herlip), cleft palate, elephantiasis in children due to heredity, mongolism due to chromosomal imbalance Some examples of this are the child being born blue due to heart disease.
2. Acquired Diseases: Such diseases or disorders are called which are not congenital but due to various causes and factors. These can be divided into the following two categories:
- Communicable or infectious diseases: These diseases are caused by a variety of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and insects. These pathogens usually travel from one place to another with the help of vectors. spread out
- Non-communicable or non-communicable diseases or degenerative diseases: These diseases occur due to the improper functioning of certain organs or organ systems in the human body. Many of these diseases are also caused by deficiency of nutrients, minerals or vitamins, such as cancer, allergies etc.
Diseases caused by blood transfusion: AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) This disease destroys the body's immune system and is caused by immunodeficiency virus (HIV - human immunodeficiency virus).
There are two types of HIV:-
The most common virus currently associated with AIDS is HIV-1. The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) found in the blood of wild green monkeys in Africa is similar to HIV-2. HIV is a retrovirus. It can make DNA from RNA. The major cell affected by HIV is the helper T-lymphocyte. These cells are in the form of CD-4 receptor. HIV slowly destroys T-lymphocytes. Due to which the patient sometimes has mild swelling of the lymph nodes, long-lasting fever, diarrhea or other non-specific symptoms.
Important facts about AIDS: The first case of AIDS was detected in India in 1986 and at that time the disease was in its final stages. HIV antibodies can be detected with an ELISA test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent such). World AIDS Day is celebrated across the world on 01 December.
List of diseases caused by viruses:
|Disease name||Affected limb||Symptoms|
|Mumps||Parotid salivary glands||Swelling of salivary glands, swelling of pancreas, ovaries and testes, fever, headache. There is a risk of infertility due to this disease.|
|Flu or influenza||Respiratory system||Fever, body aches, headache, cold, cough|
|Rabies or Hydrophobia||Nervous system||Fever, body aches, fear of water, paralysis of muscles and respiratory system, fainting, restlessness. It is a fatal disease.|
|Measles||Total Body||Fever, Pain, Itching all over the body, Burning in eyes, Fluid discharge from eyes and nose|
|Smallpox||Total body mainly face or hand or foot||Fever, pain, burning and discomfort, blisters all over the body|
|Polio||Nervous system||Inhibition of muscle contraction and paralysis in the extremities|
|Genital herpes||Skin||Skin irritation, discomfort, boils on the body|
|Encephalitis||Nervous system||Fever, restlessness, blurred vision, insomnia, fainting. it is a deadly disease|
Major endocrine glands and their functions:
|Gland name||Name of hormones||Work|
|Pituitary gland||Somatotropic Hormone, Thyrotropic Hormone, Adenocorticotropic Hormone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Endodiuretic Hormone||Regulates cell growth, Regulates secretion of thyroid gland, Regulates secretion of cortex of adrenal gland, Regulates spermatogenesis in male testis and follicle growth in female ovary, Corpus luteum Stimulation of interstitial cells to secrete estrogen from the testis and progesterone from the ovary controls the water balance in the body i.e. the amount of urine produced by the kidney.|
|Thyroid gland||Thyroxine hormone||Regulates the rate of growth and metabolism.|
|Parathyroid gland||Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin hormone||It is secreted due to lack of calcium in the blood. It regulates the supply of calcium phosphorus in the body. It is released due to excess calcium in the blood.|
|Adrenal gland, cortex gland, medulla gland||Glucocorticoid hormone, mineralo-corticoid hormone, epinephrine hormone, norepinephrine hormone||Regulates carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism, reabsorption of salts by the renal tubules and water balance in the body, controls blood pressure.|
|Pancreatitis||Insulin hormone||Controls the amount of sugar in the blood.|
|Biphasic gland||Glucagon hormone||Controls the amount of sugar in the blood.|
|Ovarian gland||Estrogen hormone, progesterone hormone, relaxin hormone||Regulates growth in the female organ, breast enlargement, controls changes in uterus and delivery, controls changes during delivery.|
|Testicular gland||Testosterone hormone||Regulates growth and sexual behavior in the male organ|
- Cancer: This disease occurs due to the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in which a lump of cells is formed, which is called neoplasm. Abnormal and persistent cell division in a particular part of the body is called a tumour.
- Gout:This disease is caused by the accumulation of uric acid particles in the joints of the feet. It is a congenital metabolic disease of uric acid that increases with excretion of uric acid
- Haemophilia: Haemophilia is called bleeder's disease. It is a disease related to sex. In hemophilia patients, the blood clotting ability is very low.
- Haemophilia A: This is caused by a deficiency of anti-hemophilia globulin factor-VIII. About four out of five cases of hemophilia are of this type.
- Haemophilia B or Christmas disease: Caused by a defect in the plasma thromboplastic component.
- Hepatitis: This is a viral disease that affects the liver, causing liver cancer or jaundice. The disease spreads through feces or through the mouth. Children and young adults are more likely to get this disease and there is no vaccine yet.