Origin of the name of Earth:
Prithvi or Prithvi is a Sanskrit word which means "a vast land". According to a different legend, it was named Prithvi after Maharaja Prithu. Its other names include- Dhara, Bhoomi, Dhritri, Rasa, Ratnagarbha etc. In other languages, it is called Earth in English and Terra in Latin. However, in all the names, its meaning has been almost the same.
History of Earth:
The history of the Earth describes the most important events and basic stages of its development from the formation of the planet Earth 4.6 billion years ago to the present day. Earth is the 5th largest planet in size and the third planet in order of distance from the Sun. It is the only planet in the solar system on which there is life. Almost all branches of natural science have contributed to the explanation of major events in the history of the Earth. The age of the earth is about one-third of the age of the universe. Extensive geological and biological changes have taken place during that period.
History of Earth Day:
Earth Day is celebrated all over the world on 22 April. Earth Day was first celebrated in the year 1970. Its purpose was to make people sensitive to the environment. Earth Day is celebrated to inspire appreciation and awareness about the Earth's environment. Earth Day was founded in 1970 by US Senator Gerald Nelson as an environmental education, and is celebrated annually in many countries. The date of Earth Day is the season of spring in the northern hemisphere and autumn in the southern hemisphere. Earth Day at the United Nations is celebrated each year on the March equinox (the time of year when day and night are equal), often on March 20, a tradition founded by peace activist John McConnell. was done.
Earth's internal structure:
There are many differences among scientists regarding the internal structure of the Earth. There is no complete agreement yet on the thickness, density, temperature, weight and nature of the material found in the earth's womb. Nevertheless, efforts have been made to obtain information about the internal structure of the Earth by collecting evidence based on temperature, pressure, density, meteors and seismic waves. The inner part of the earth is divided into three parts:-
- Earth's crust
- The cover
- Central part
The shape of the earth is like a spherical sphere. It is almost spherical and flattens slightly at the poles. The highest point on Earth is Mount Everest, whose height is 8848 m. Is. On the other hand, the lowest point is the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean, whose depth is 10,911 m above sea level. Is. The internal structure of the Earth consists of three main parts of several layers - the upper surface crust, the middle layer mantle and the inner layer the metallic core. The earth's crust accounts for 0.5% of the total volume of the Earth, while the mantle covers 83% of it. The remaining 16% is the core.
Chemical Composition of Earth:
Earth is made up of iron (32.1 percent), oxygen (30.1 percent), silicon (15.1 percent), magnesium (13.9 percent), sulfur (2.9 percent), nickel (1.8 percent), calcium (1.5 percent) and aluminum (1.4 percent). has happened since. Apart from this, about 1.2 percent other elements also contribute. The core is made up of about 88.8% iron. geochemist F. According to W. Clark, the Earth's crust contains about 47 percent oxygen. Earth's density is the highest in the entire solar system. The composition of the rest of the rocky planet is similar to that of Earth with some differences. Moon's nucleus is small, Mercury's center is large compared to its total size, Mars and Moon's mantle is somewhat thick, Moon and Mercury do not have chemically different crust, only Earth's inner and outer mantle layers are different . Note that our knowledge about the internal structure of planets (Earth also) is theoretical only.
Earth rotates continuously on its axis. It has two motions- 1. Rotation: The rotation on the axis of the earth is called rotation. The earth rotates from west to east and takes 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.091 seconds to complete one rotation. This is how day and night happen. 2. Rotation: The Earth completes one revolution around the Sun in an elliptical path in 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.51 seconds, which is called its speed of revolution. Due to this movement of the earth, the seasons change.
Earth System Science Organization:
The Ministry of Earth Sciences was set up in 2006, recognizing the importance of strong links between the various components of the Earth in India, for example, the atmosphere, oceans, cyrosphere and geosphere. Soon after this a real organization came into existence in the year 2007. This was the Earth System Sciences Organization / ESSO / Esso which was the administrative part of the ministry. Under this there are three main branches of geology –
- Ocean science and technology,
- Environmental science and technology and
- Geology and Technology.
The sole objective of this effort was to take a holistic view of the various aspects of Earth's processes to understand the variations in the Earth's system and to improve forecasting of weather, climate and hazards.
Important facts about Earth:
- Earth's only satellite is the Moon.
- Every day 4500 clouds thunder over the earth.
- The Sun is the nearest star to the Earth.
- Carbon is definitely present in every living thing on earth.
- Earth is tilted 23 1º/2 on its axis.
- Every day 4500 clouds thunder over the earth.
- Earth rotates at a speed of 1670 kilometers per hour.
- Earth is similar to Venus in terms of size and texture.
- 29% of the Earth's surface is land and 71% is water.
- It takes 8 minutes 18 seconds for sunlight to reach the earth.
- According to scientists, the total age of the Earth has been considered to be 4.6 billion years.
- The lowest temperature ever measured on Earth is 89.2 °C.
- Earth is the fifth largest planet in the solar system in size.
- There are six big countries of the world which cover 40% of the earth.
- Every single second, somewhere on the earth, lightning strikes 100 times.
- Earth is the only planet in the solar system on which life exists.
- Earth completes one revolution in 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds.
- Earth is the only planet in the Milky Way with a system of tectonic plates.
- Considering the sun as a football, our earth would be like a small glass ball.
- If the Moon was not a satellite of the Earth, the day on Earth would have been about 30 hours.
- Scientists have found out the age of the Earth by the Radiometic Dating Method.
- Lightning strikes the earth 100 times in 1 second and 80.6 million times every day.
- 97% of the water on earth is salty or unfit for drinking and only 3% is clean water for drinking.
- Due to the gravitational force of the earth, it is not possible for the mountains to be higher than 15,000 meters.
- It is also called the blue planet due to the presence of water and blue appearance from space.
- It has an equatorial/equatorial diameter of 12,756 km and a polar diameter of 12,714 km.
- Only 11 percent of the Earth's land area is used to produce food.
- There is so much gold in the center of the earth that a sheet of 1.5 feet can cover the entire surface of the earth.
- In 1989, the deepest pit was dug by man in Russia. Whose depth was 12.262 km.
- Every day a piece of waste from space falls on the earth. This estimate has been made by NASA scientists.
- There are 5 lakh earthquakes on the earth every year. Of these, only one lakh earthquakes are felt while 100 are destructive.
- The gravitational force of the Earth is so great that due to which no mountain can touch a height of more than 15,000 meters.
- The closest star to Earth after the Sun is Proxima Sintori, a star in the Alpha Sintori group. It is 4.22 light years away from Earth.
- A photo of Earth was taken from a distance of 3.7 billion miles. Whose name is 'Pale Blue Dot'. This is the picture of the Earth taken from the longest distance ever.
- The height of Mount Everest is 8850 meters above sea level. But if we talk about the distance of space from the center of the earth, then we find that the highest mountain is Mount Chimborazo of Ecuador. Its height is 6310 meters.
- It takes the Earth 365 days and 6 hours to complete one revolution around the Sun. Adding up to 6 hours, that adds up to a day. It is added every fourth year in February. The same month of February has 29 days.
- About 30,000 celestial bodies enter the Earth's atmosphere every year. But most of these start burning due to friction when they reach inside the earth's atmosphere, which many people call as 'Brota Ra'.
- The name Prithvi or Prithvi is based on the mythological story which is related to Maharaja Prithu. Other names are – Dhara, Bhumi, Dharitri, Rasa, Ratnagarbha etc.
- The name of Earth in English is Earth (Earth) and in Latin language Terra.
- The change of seasons on Earth is due to its tilt on its orbit and due to the change in its position relative to the Sun i.e. due to annual motion. Due to the annual motion, the day and night on the earth become shorter and longer.
- Earth system science includes the understanding of the complex relationships between the various components of the Earth, namely the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere, geosphere, and biosphere. Information about the Earth system helps improve forecasting of climate, weather and natural hazards.
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