Science and Technology Meaning, History, Branches and Important Concepts

History and Meaning of Technology:

The tradition of science is one of the oldest scientific traditions in the world. Science originated in India 3000 years before Christ. The evidence of the Sindh valley obtained from the excavations of Harappa and Mohenjodaro shows the scientific vision of the people there and the use of scientific instruments. In ancient times, the discoveries of Charaka and Sushruta in the field of medicine, Aryabhata, Brahmagupta and Aryabhata II in the field of astronomy and mathematics and Nagarjuna in chemistry have contributed very much. Technology is a broad group of studies or sciences related to applied, industrial arts and applied sciences. Technology is the sum total of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.

The simplest form of technology is the development and use of basic equipment. The prehistoric quest to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel helped humans travel and control their environments. Developments in historical times, including the printing press, telephone, and the Internet, have reduced physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. Many people use the terms technology and engineering interchangeably. People who adopt technology as a profession are called engineers.

Meaning and History of Science:

Science means special knowledge. All the new inventions that man has made for his needs are the result of science. Today's era is the age of science. Human life has become more comfortable than before due to countless inventions of science. The world has developed only through science. The word science is a Latin word, meaning "knowledge". The earliest roots of science can be traced back to ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, around 3500 to 3000 BCE.

His contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped the Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, which also led to formal attempts to provide explanations of phenomena in the physical world based on natural causes.

Important concepts related to science and technology:

  • Robotics: The science of technology by which a structure consisting of a microprocessor, camera, and sensory devices is combined/controlled in such a way that it acts as an automatic machine. In 1913, the first American scientists built the "George" salt robot.
    Stem cell technology: Stem cells are basic cells that can be developed or transformed into about 250 different types of cells or tissues of the human body such as the lungs, skin, retina of the eye, muscles, liver, brain, nervous system, and heart etc. could. Many diseases including genetic diseases can be cured by transplanting it easily in the human body. The first research center for stem cell technology in India has been established in Hyderabad.
  • Cloning: A clone is actually an organism or creation that is derived from a single parent (either one of the parents) by a non-sexual method. In this technique, first the nucleus is removed from the cell by mechanical method and then the nucleus is introduced into the eggless egg, finally the fully developed egg is implanted in the implanted mother's womb. With this process, the process of conception, development of the child and birth begins. This technique of producing clones is called cloning.
  • Laser (LASER - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation): It is a device in which monochromatic light is obtained by radiation-induced emission. These laser waves have the same frequency. The laser was discovered by Theodore Menon (USA) in 1960.
  • Traitor Technology: This technique is used in the production of multigene transgenic crops (produced by the process of genetic genes). Seeds developed by this technique germinate, but they do not show modified characteristics unless specially developed chemicals are used in them.
  • Biometric technology: This technology is an automated method of identifying, verifying and recognizing a person on the basis of his physical and practical characteristics, qualities and defects. Under this, the person's face, fingerprint, palm lines, retina, handwriting, blood pulse, and voice characteristics are examined.
  • Organic agriculture: The method of agriculture in which those techniques are used to increase the production and cultivation of the fields, which also maintains the vitality of the soil and does not harm the environment. In this technique, soil is considered as organic rather than as a physical element and chemical-free farming is done.
  • Global warming: The increase in the atmospheric temperature of the earth due to the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases (chlorofluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide etc.) This process of increase in temperature is called global warming. For the first time in the world, due to global warming, an island in the country of Papua New Guinea has submerged.
  • E-waste / e-waste: After the electronic products are spoiled, their disposal is not done with full scientific method, as a result the radioactive radiation emitted from it is harmful to the environment and the living beings. Many developed countries send these unusable products to underdeveloped countries through dumping, due to which the ground water resources have been polluted. The United Nations has decided to promote waste management by taking a positive initiative in this direction.
  • 3G technology: This is the third generation communication technology through which high speed internet, fast data transmission rate, video calls, modern multimedia facilities as well as mobile TV will be available. BSNL company has started this technology for the first time in India.

Major branches of science

Branch Subject of study
Geology Earth's internal structure
Gemology Study of gems
Teratology Study of tumors
Tactology Animal - anatomical composition of the body
Dermatology Study of skin and related diseases
Dendrology Study of trees
Dactyology Study of numbers
Neurology Pulse pulse and related topics
Numismatics Currency – Making and Marking
Pathology Causes of diseases and related topics
Bioshimaki (Paleontology) Fossils and related topics
Parasitology Parasitic flora and bacteria
Phenology Evolution of animals
Bryology Swamp and mud study
Balneology Mineral extraction and related matters
Biology Anatomical study of living organisms
Botany Study of plants
Bacteriology Topics related to bacteria
Morphology The study of the morphology of the living and physical world
Mineralogy Study of minerals
Meteorology Environment and related topics
Space science Space travel and related topics
Fisheries Fish and related topics
Osteology Study of bones
Ornithology Bird related topics
Optics Properties of light and its structure
Ecology Study of ecology
Ekrinology Secret information and related matters
Anatomy Human body structure
Aeronautics Flight of planes
Astronomy Subjects related to stars and planets and study of celestial bodies
Agrology Study of land
Entomology  Pests and related topics
Arachnology Spiders and related topics
Embryology Embryo & Related Topics
Oceanography Ocean related topics
Cosmology Study of the universe
Seed writing Cryptic script
Gynecology Study of female reproductive organs
Micrology Fungus and related topics
Myology Musculoskeletal
Radiobiology Effect of solar radiation on animals
Rock Characteristics (Lithology) Rock and stone related topics
limnology Study of lakes and terrestrial water bodies
Serology Blood serum and blood transfusion
Splacnology Internal organs and related
Space Biology Study of the possibility of life in space beyond Earth
Hematology Study of blood and related subjects
Heliology Study of the sun
Herpetology Study of reptiles
Histology Body tissues and related topics
Hypnology Study of sleep and related subjects

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