History of Indian space research:

Indian space research is the concept of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, who has been called the father of the Indian space program. He became known as a scientific visionary and a national hero. After the launch of Sputnik in 1957, he realized the utility of artificial satellites. India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who considered scientific development to be an important part of India's future, placed space research in 1961 under the supervision of the Department of Atomic Energy.

In 1962, 'Indian National Committee for Space Research' (INCOSPAR) was formed, in which Dr. Sarabhai was appointed as the chairman. After which, in 2003, Dr. Sarabhai participated in a preliminary study with NASA regarding the feasibility of artificial satellites to be used for multiple applications such as live broadcasting of television and it was found from the study that, This is the cheapest and easiest way to do it.

From the outset, realizing the benefits of bringing satellites to India, Sarabhai and ISRO worked together to develop an independent launch vehicle, which would be necessary to put artificial satellites into orbit, and build them into larger launch vehicles in the future. Was able to provide practice.

Types of Satellites in India

  • Biological Satellites: They are satellites which are generally used to carry living organisms for scientific experiments.
  • Astronomical Satellites: They are satellites used for observing distant planets, galaxies and other outer space objects.
  • Communication Satellites: They are satellites which are deployed in space for the purpose of telecommunication. Modern communications satellites typically use geosynchronous orbits, Molniya orbits, or low Earth orbits.
  • Observation satellites: Earth observation satellites or communications satellites are deployed for military or intelligence purposes. Little is known about the full power of these satellites; the government that operates them usually keeps the information related to their observation satellites classified.
  • Earth observation satellites: There are satellites which are used for non-military purposes like environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc.
  • Small Satellites: There are satellites of unusually low weight and small size. New classifications are used to classify these satellites: minisatellite (500–200 kg), microsatellite (below 200 kg), nanosatellite (below 10 kg).
  • Space stations: are human-designed structures for human beings living in and outside of outer space. A space station is distinguished by its lack of major propulsion or landing features to a spacecraft—rather, the other vehicles used as transport to or from the station. Space stations are designed to remain in orbit for intermediate periods, for periods of weeks, months, or even years.
  • Navigation satellites: are satellites that use radio time transmitted signals, which enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location. Relatively clear line of sight between satellites and receivers on the ground, Satellite navigation systems, combined with improvements in electronics, allows to measure the location of accuracy in real time, on the order of a few meters.
  • Test satellites: Several small satellites, mainly for experimental purposes. These tests include remote sensing, atmospheric studies, payload development, orbit control, recovery technology, etc.
  • Tether Satellites: They are satellites which are connected to another satellite by a thin wire called tether.
  • Weather Satellites: Mainly used to monitor the Earth's weather and climate.
  • Navigational Satellites: Satellites for navigation service to meet the emerging demands of civil aviation needs and user needs of location, navigation and navigation based on independent satellite navigation system.

List of Indian satellites in india:

Launch year Satellite Description
1975 Aryabhatta India's first satellite.
1979 Bhaskara Sega-I India's first experimental remote sensing satellite carried TV and microwave cameras.
1979 Rohini TechnologyPayload The First Indian launch vehicle Failed to achieve orbit.
1980 Rohini RS-1 India's first indigenous satellite launch was used for measuring the in-flight performance of the second experimental launch of SLV-3.
1981 Rohini RS-D1 Launched by the first developmental launch of SLV-3, used for conducting remote sensing technology studies using a sensor payload.
1981 Apple First experimental communication satellite.
1981 Bhaskara-II Second experimental remote sensing satellite.
1982 INSAT-1A First operational multipurpose communication and meteorology satellite.
1983 Rohini RS-D2 Same as RS-D1.
1983 INSAT-1B Same as INSAT-1A.
1987 SROSS-1 It carried a payload for launch vehicle performance monitoring and for gamma-ray astronomy. Failed to achieve orbit.
1988 IRS-1A India's first operational remote sensing satellite.
1988 SROSS-2 Carried remote sensing payload of the German space agency and gamma-ray astronomy payload.
1988 INSAT-1C Same as INSAT-1A.
1990 INSAT-1D Same as INSAT-1A.
1991 IRS-1B Improved version of IRS-1A.
1992 INSAT-2DT Launched as Arabsat 1C.
1992 SROSS-C It carried gamma-ray astronomy and aeronomy payload.
1992 INSAT-2A The first satellite in the second-generation Indian-built INSAT-2 series.
1993 INSAT-2B The second satellite in the INSAT-2 series.
1993 IRS-1E Earth observation satellite. Failed to achieve orbit.
1994 SROSS-C2 Same as SROSS-C.
1994 IRS-P2 Launched by the second developmental flight of PSLV.
1995 INSAT-2C It has capabilities such as mobile satellite service, business communication and television outreach beyond Indian boundaries.
1995 IRS-1C Launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome.
1996 IRS-P3 It carried a remote sensing payload and an X-ray astronomy payload.
1997 INSAT-2D Same as INSAT-2C.
1997 IRS-1D Same as IRS-1C.
1999 INSAT-2E Multipurpose communication and meteorological satellite.
1999 OceanSat-1 It carried an OCM and MSMR.
2000 INSAT-3B Multipurpose communication satellite.
2001 GSAT-1 Experimental satellite for the first developmental flight of GSLV-D1. Failed to complete its mission.
2001 TES It is considered a prototype for future Indian spy satellites.
2002 INSAT-3C Augmented the INSAT capacity for communication and broadcasting
2002 Kalpana-1 First meteorological satellite built by ISRO.
2003 INSAT-3A Multipurpose communication satellite, similar to INSAT-2E and Kalpana-1.
2003 GSAT-2 Experimental satellite for the second developmental test flight of GSLV.
2003 INSAT-3E Communication satellite to augment the existing INSAT System.
2003 ResourceSat-1 Intended to supplement and replace IRS-1C and IRS-1D.
2004 GSAT-3 India's first exclusive educational satellite.
2005 CartoSat-1 Earth observation satellite.
2005 HamSat Micro-satellite built in collaboration with Indian and Dutch researchers.
2005 INSAT-4A Advanced satellite for direct-to-home television broadcasting services.
2006 INSAT-4C Geosynchronous communications satellite. Failed to achieve orbit.
2007 CartoSat-2 Advanced remote sensing satellite
2007 SRE-1 An experimental satellite that was launched as a co-passenger with CARTOSAT-2.
2007 INSAT-4B Same as INSAT-4A.
2007 INSAT-4CR Same as INSAT-4C.
2008 CartoSat-2A Same as CARTOSAT-2.
2008 IMS-1 Low-cost microsatellite imaging mission. Launched as co-passenger with CARTOSAT-2A.
2008 Chandrayaan-1 India's first unmanned lunar probe.
2009 RISAT-2 Radar imaging satellite. Launched as a co-passenger with ANUSAT.
2009 AnuSat-1 Research micro-satellite. It has since been retired.
2009 OceanSat-2 Continues mission of OceanSat-1.
2010 GSAT-4 Communications satellite with technology demonstrator features. Failed to achieve orbit.
2010 CartoSat-2B Same as CartoSat-2A.
2010 StudSat India's first pico-satellite (weighing less than 1 kg).
2010 GSAT-5P C-band communication satellite. Failed to achieve the mission.
2011 ResourceSat-2 Same as ResourceSat-1.
2011 YouthSat Indo-Russian stellar and atmospheric mini-satellite.
2011 GSAT-8 or INSAT-4G Communications Satellite
2011 GSAT-12 Augmented the capacity of the INSAT system for various communication services.
2011 Megha-Tropiques Jointly developed by ISRO and the French CNES.
2011 Jugnu Nano-satellite developed by IIT Kanpur.
2011 SRMSat Nano-satellite developed by SRM Institute of Science and Technology.
2012 RISAT-1 India's first indigenous all-weather Radar Imaging Satellite.
2012 GSAT-10 India's advanced communication satellite.
2013 SARAL Joint Indo-French satellite mission for oceanographic studies.
2013 IRNSS-1A The first of seven satellites in the IRNSS navigational system.
2013 INSAT-3D It is a meteorological Satellite with advanced weather monitoring payloads.
2013 GSAT-7 It is the advanced multi-band communication satellite dedicated to military use.
2013 Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) or Mangalyaan-1 India's first Mars orbiter.
2014 GSAT-14 Intended to replace GSAT-3, and to augment the in-orbit capacity of Extended C and Ku-band transponders.
2014 IRNSS-1B It is the second of seven satellites in the IRNSS system.
2014 IRNSS-1C It is the third satellite in the IRNSS.
2014 GSAT-16 It has the highest number of transponders in a single satellite at that time (48 transponders).
2015 IRNSS-1D It is the fourth satellite in the IRNSS.
2015 GSAT-6 Communication satellite that marks the success of indigenously developed upper stage cryogenic engine.
2015 Astrosat India's first dedicated multi-wavelength space observatory.
2015 GSAT-15 Communications satellite.
2016 IRNSS-1E It is the fifth satellite in the IRNSS.
2016 IRNSS-1F It is the sixth satellite in the IRNSS.
2016 IRNSS-1G It is the seventh satellite in the IRNSS.
2016 Cartosat-2C Same as CARTOSAT-2,2A and 2B.
2016 SathyabamaSat A micro-satellite designed and built by Sathyabama University, Chennai.
2016 Swayam-1 A 1-U pico-satellite designed and built by the students of College of Engineering, Pune.
2016 INSAT-3DR An advanced meteorological satellite
2016 Pratham A mini-satellite built by students and researchers at IIT, Mumbai.
2016 PISat A micro-satellite designed and built by the students of PES Institute of Technology, Bengaluru.
2016 ScatSat-1 Miniature satellite to provide weather forecasting, cyclone prediction, and tracking services to India.
2016 GSAT-18 The heaviest satellite owned by India at the time of its launch.
2016 ResourceSat-2A Same as Resourcesat-1 and Resourcesat-2.
2017 CartoSat-2D ISRO holds the world record for launching the highest number of satellites by a single launch vehicle.
2017 INS-1A One of 2 nano-satellites designed and manufactured by ISRO, as part of the constellation of 104 satellites launched in a single go.
2017 INS-1B One of 2 nano-satellites designed and manufactured by ISRO, as part of the constellation of 104 satellites launched in a single go.
2017 South Asia Satellite It is offered by India as a diplomatic initiative to its neighbouring countries (SAARC region) for communication, remote sensing, resource mapping and disaster management applications.
2017 GSAT-19 It is the heaviest rocket (and the heaviest satellite) to be launched by ISRO from Indian soil.
2017 NIUSat It is built by the students of Noorul Islam University, Kanyakumari.
2017 CartoSat-2E 7th satellite in the Cartosat series to be built by ISRO.
2017 GSAT-17 India's 18th communication (and to date, its heaviest) satellite
2017 IRNSS-1H First satellite to be co-designed and built-in collaboration with private sector assistance. Failed to achieve orbit.
2018 CartoSat-2F 6th satellite in the Cartosat series to be built by ISRO.
2018 MicroSat-TD It is a technology demonstrator and the forerunner for future satellites in this series.
2018 INS-1C Third satellite in the Indian Nanosatellite series. It will carry MMX-TD Payload from SAC.
2018 GSAT-6A A high power S-band communication satellite. It will also provide a platform for developing technologies.
2018 IRNSS-II Eighth satellite of IRNSS.
2018 GSAT-29 High-throughput Communication Satellite
2018 HySIS Hyperspectral imaging services for agriculture, forestry, resource mapping, geographical assessment and military applications.
2018 ExseedSat-1 India's first privately funded and built satellite.
2018 GSAT-11 Heaviest Indian spacecraft in orbit to date.
2018 GSAT-7A Services for IAF and Indian Army.
2019 Microsat-R Suspected to have been destroyed in the 2019 Indian anti-satellite missile test.
2019 PS4 Stage attached with KalamSAT-V2 Used PSLV's 4th stage as an orbital platform.
2019 GSAT-31 Replacement of the ageing INSAT-4CR.
2019 EMISAT Electromagnetic intelligence to track any enemy radars for IAF.
2019 PS4 Stage attached with ExseedSat-2, AMSAT, ARIS and AIS payloads Utilization of the fourth stage directly as a satellite for experiments.
2019 RISAT-2B Successor to old RISAT-2.
2019 Orbiter of Chandrayaan-2 India's second lunar exploration mission.
2019 Cartosat-3 One of the optical satellites with the highest resolutions in the world.
2019 RISAT-2BR1 Improved resolution of 0.35 metres.
2020 GSAT-30 Replacement of INSAT-4A.
2020 EOS-01 Space-based synthetic aperture imaging radar.
2020 CMS-01 Extended C-band coverage for mainland India, Lakshadweep and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
2021 Sindhu Netra Earth observation satellite used by Indian Navy for surveillance over the Indian Ocean.
2021 SDSat This Nanosatellite was developed by Space Kidz India to study radiations. It carried 25,000 names and a copy of Bhagavad Gita into space.
2021 JITSat Developed by JIT as part of UNITYSat constellation.
2021 GHRCESat Developed by GHRCE as part of UNITYSat constellation.
2021 Sri Shakthi Sat Developed by SIET as part of UNITYSat constellation.
2021 EOS-03 India's first real-time Earth observation satellite and first satellite of the GISAT constellation.
7 August 2022 OCEANSAT-3 Earth observation satellite for oceanographic and atmospheric studies.
14 February 2022 RISAT-1A Radar imaging satellite to facilitate high-quality images and additional security to Indian borders.
2023 GISAT-2 Multispectral and hyperspectral Earth-imaging satellite.
2 Sepetember 2023 Aditya-L1 Solar coronal observation spacecraft.
2023 GSAT-32 Communications satellite.
2023 GSAT-7R Military communications satellite.
2023 DRSS-1 Communications satellite comprising two satellites in the initial stage-- CMS-04 and IDRSS-2 in GEO.
2023 DRSS-2 Communications satellite comprising two satellites in the initial stage-- CMS-04 and IDRSS-2 in GEO.
2023 GSAT-7C Military communications satellite.
January 2024 GSAT-20 Communication satellite to add data transmission capacity required by Smart Cities Mission of India.
2024 SPADEX x 2 Demonstration of rendezvous space docking and berthing of spacecraft.
2024 X-ray Polarimeter Satellite Space observatory to study polarization of cosmic X-rays.
2024 INSAT 3DS Military communications satellite.
2024 AstroSat-2 It is a space telescope and successor of AstroSat-1.
2024 NISAR A joint mission between ISRO and NASA is a dual-frequency synthetic aperture on an Earth observation satellite.
2024 Lunar Polar Exploration Mission Joint lunar exploration mission between ISRO and JAXA.
2024-25 Mangalyaan-2 India's second Mars exploration mission.
2025 DISHA Twin aeronomy satellite mission.
2025 TDS-01 A technology demonstrator for TWTA and atomic clock.
2026 Shukrayaan-1 Venus exploration satellite.

Now practice related questions and see what you learnt?

Indian Satellite GK Questions and Answers 🔗

Read also:


The planet Mercury has a total of zero natural satellites or moons. It does not have any moons orbiting around it.

The first four satellites of Jupiter were discovered by Galileo Galilei. He discovered these four satellites, namely Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, in 1610 using a telescope.

The planet with the maximum number of satellites is Jupiter. Jupiter has a total of 79 known moons or satellites as of the latest count.

The source of electrical energy in an artificial satellite is usually solar energy. Solar panels are installed on the surface of artificial satellites, which convert the sun's temperature into energy and provide the satellite's needs in the form of electricity.

The satellite launch center of India, known as Satish Dhawan Space Center (SDSC) SHAR, is located in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is the primary space port for ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation).

  Last update :  Tue 29 Aug 2023
  Post Views :  11245
  Post Category :  Space Science