Chandigarh History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Chandigarh, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Chandigarh have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Quick General Knowledge
1 November 1966
114 sq km
Current Chief Minister
Shri Manohar Lal
Indian grey hornbill
Indian Gray Weasel
Hindi, Punjabi, English
Chandigarh is a Union Territory of the Republic of India and one of the major cities of North India. Chandigarh borders with 03 Indian states Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. Chandigarh is the joint capital of two Indian states Punjab and Haryana. Chandigarh is the first planned city of the country. It was planned by the French architect Le Corbusier. Asia's largest Rose Garden, named "Zakir Hussain Rose Garden", is located in Chandigarh.
Chandigarh, being a prosperous place in the Middle, was part of the Punjab province. After the partition of British India in 1947, the state of Punjab was divided into two parts of India and Pakistan. After partition, the old capital of the state Lahore went to Pakistan and no capital remained with the former Punjab. As a result, it was decided to establish a new planned capital city and in the year 1952 the foundation of the city of Chandigarh was laid. Chandigarh was then made a Union Territory on November 01, 1966. After the formation of Haryana later, Chandigarh was made the joint capital of the two states on the basis of proximity and importance.
Chandigarh is one of the 07 union territories of India located in the northwest of the country in the foothills of the Shivalik ranges of the Himalayas. The area of the city is about 44 square miles (114 km). It is located at 30 degree 14 North latitude and 76 degree 14 East longitude. It is bordered by Haryana (Punjab, India) to the north, Haryana to the east, and Punjab to the south. The sea elevation of the city is 321 meters (1053 ft). Chandigarh is also known as the "Pensioner's Paradise", Chandigarh is named after the Chandi temple located here. The main river of Chandigarh is Patiala-ki-Rao. The state flower of Chandigarh is 'Palash'. The state bird of Chandigarh is the 'Indian Gray Hornbill'. The state tree of Chandigarh is 'Mango'. The state animal of Chandigarh is the 'Gray Weasel'.
Chandigarh has a sub-tropical monsoon season. Its specialty is the hot summers, unstable rains and shivering winters. The temperature here varies and the temperature here varies from -1 degree to 46 degree. It also has frost here in winter. The average annual rainfall here is 1100 mm. Happens till then.
The Chandigarh Administration is functioning under an Administrator appointed under Section 239 of the Constitution. The head of the administration is the Governor, who is known as the Administrator and is appointed by the President. They have the highest executive powers. Its administration comes under the Ministry of Home Affairs of India. The Union Territory has its own parliamentary constituency which includes the whole of Chandigarh. There is also a Legislative Assembly of both the states of Punjab and Haryana.
The major political parties in Chandigarh include the Indian National Congress, the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Bahujan Samaj Party.
The present Administrator of Chandigarh बनवारीलाल पुरोहित (प्रशासक). He has been sworn in as the Governor (Administrator) of Chandigarh on 21 August 2021.
Chandigarh is known as the base of 3 different types of governments. There are about 15 medium to large industries and public enterprises here. There are about 2500 small scale industrial units here. The tourism sector of the state is also very rich and it is very popular among Indians and foreigners. Chandigarh tops the list of Union Territories due to having the highest per capita income as compared to other union territories of India.
Major industries in Chandigarh mainly include manufacturing of paper, sanitary ware, machine tools, basic metals, auto parts, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. There are also many industries related to food products here.
There is very little land available for cultivation in Chandigarh. Agricultural land is being gradually acquired for the expansion of the city. The agricultural area of the city in the year 1966 was 5,441 hectares, which has come down to 1,400 hectares in the year 2002-03. The main crop here is wheat which is sown in 700 hectares.
Chandigarh has a literacy rate of 86.43 percent. The government here has made efforts to provide education to every child within one kilometer of the house. Here you will find a large number of private and government schools. Many private schools that are known to be secular also receive grants and aid.
The major industries of Chandigarh include manufacturing of paper, sanitary ware, machine tools, basic metals, auto parts, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. There are also many industries related to food products here.
According to the 2011 census, Chandigarh has a population of 10,55,450. The population density of the state is 9252 persons per square km. Belongs to The sex ratio of Chandigarh is 818 females per 1000 males. Children constitute 10% of the total population.
The traditional attire of Chandigarh mainly consists of kurta salwar, patiala suit, ghagra, choli, lehenga, which is the first go by women. Here most of the men can be seen wearing shirt (kameez) and jeans etc. Warm socks, sweaters, jackets and shawls are mainly used for winters.
Chandigarh is inhabited by people of different religions, among whom Hindu, Muslim, Sikh and Christian are prominent. It has the largest population of people of Hindu religion and Sikh religion is second in number. Chandigarh is very progressive and around 90% of its area is developed. This union territory is known for its folk dances and music. Most of the customs and traditions here are associated with Punjabi culture and Hindu, Sikh and Muslim culture. Famous folk dances here include Bhangra, Gidda, Julie, Sammi and Tiyan.
Traditional costumes of Chandigarh mainly include kurta salwar, patiala suit, ghaghara, choli, lehenga, which is the first to go by women. Here most of the men can be seen wearing shirt (shirt) and jeans etc. Warm socks, sweaters, jackets and shawls are mainly used for winter.
The popular language here is Punjabi. Hindi is also spoken here a lot. Haryanvi is also spoken here as being the capital of Haryana. Most people speak Hindi and English.
The traditional food here is spicy typical Punjabi food. Both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food is cooked here with great variety and taste. Other main dishes in the city include Makki Di Roti, Mustard Saag, Dal Makhani, Kadhi, Punjabi Chole, Palak Paneer, Stuffed Paratha Vegetable Punjabi, Brinjal da Bhurta, Butter Chicken, Punjabi Lachha Paratha and Chicken Tikka.
People of all religions celebrate their -2 festivals in Chandigarh. Baisakhi, Gurupurab, Lohri, Tika, Raksha Bandhan etc. are celebrated with great reverence in the main festivals here.
The Capital Complex of Chandigarh is a very beautiful example of contemporary architecture. Recently UNESCO has declared the Capital Complex as a World Heritage Site. Chandigarh is a modern craft and beautiful city, which attracts tourists. Major tourist destinations here include Capitol Complex, Pinjore Garden, Rose Garden, Sukhna Lake, Rock Garden, Sukhna Lake, Capital Complex, Gardens and Parks, International Dolls Museum, State Museum and Art Gallery, Temple of Goddess Chandi and Shadow Tower etc. Are quite famous.
Chandigarh has only 1 district, also known as Chandigarh, with a population of 10,55,450 and an area of 114 square kilometers.