Jammu And Kashmir History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts

Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Jammu And Kashmir, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Jammu And Kashmir have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.

Jammu and Kashmir Quick General Knowledge

State NameJammu and Kashmir (जम्मू और कश्मीर)
State LevelUnion territories
CapitalJammu (winter), Shrinagar (summer)
Statehood31 October 2019
Largest CitySrinagar
Total Area2,22,236 sq km
Districts20
Current Chief Ministerblank
Current GovernorManoj Sinha (Lt. Governor)
State BirdNot yet designated
State FlowerLotus
State AnimalKashmir stag
State TreePlatanus orientalis
LanguagesDogri, Hindi, English and Urdu
State DanceRauf, Heekat, Mandjat, Jump dandi dance, Damali.

Jammu and Kashmir (जम्मू और कश्मीर)

Jammu and Kashmir is a union territory located in the northern most part of India. Jammu and Kashmir has two capitals, Srinagar in summer (May-October) and Jammu as its capital in winter (November-April). It is bounded by India to the north by China and Afghanistan, to the east by China, and to the south by Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. It is bounded on the west by the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan and Punjab. The area of ​​Jammu and Kashmir is 101,387 sq km. is. Jammu Kashmir was a privileged state under Article 370 mentioned in the Constitution of India but on 5 August 2019, the Government of India moved to repeal Article 370 from the Constitution of India and the state was transferred to two Union Territories, Jammu and Kashmir. , And introduced a bill to divide Ladakh. On 9 August 2019, President of India Ramnath Kovind approved the 'Jammu and Kashmir Reorganization' 2019 Act, dividing Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. Accordingly, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh officially became Union Territories on 31 October.

In two authentic texts Rajatarangini and Neelam Purana, it is found that the valley of Kashmir was once a very large lake. Jammu and Kashmir remained under Hindu rulers and then Muslim sultans. Later this kingdom became part of the Mughal Empire under Akbar's rule. After Afghan rule from 1756, in 1819, this state became under the Sikh Empire of Punjab. In 1846, Ranjit Singh handed over the Jammu region to Maharaja Gulab Singh. After the decisive battle of Sabrun in 1846, Kashmir was also handed over to Maharaja Gulab Singh as per the Amritsar Treaty. Till 1947, Jammu was ruled by the Dogra rulers.

In 1947, this state became the subject of armed attack of Pakistan. It was approved to join India on 26 October 1947, after the signing of the agreement of accession to Maharaja Harisingh. That merger letter was signed on 26 October 1947 by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Maharaj Harisingh. According to this merger letter, "The state will not retain its authority over only three subjects - defense, foreign affairs and communications - it will control all the rest." In this sequence, Article 370 was added to the Indian constitution, and it was stated that the state provision related to Jammu and Kashmir is only temporary and not permanent.


The area of ​​Jammu and Kashmir is 101,387 sq km. is. Jammu and Kashmir is situated at an elevation of 395 to 6910 meters. It is bounded on the west by the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan and Punjab. The state has three regions: the foothills of Jammu, the blue valleys and lakes of Kashmir, and the beautiful mountainous terrain of Ladakh. The Indus River flows through Kashmir and the Jhelum rises from the northeastern region of the region. The state tree of Jammu and Kashmir is 'Chinar'. The state bird of Jammu and Kashmir is 'Shyam-Kanthi Crane'. The state animal of Jammu and Kashmir is Hangul.
More than 90% of the state is mountainous. The climate here is varied, the main reason being dry topography. The climate of summer is mild here due to the rain that occurs on the outer plains and hills. Temperatures drop here due to high winds moisturizing high altitudes. The climate here is very cold as it is situated at a higher elevation of the valley than in the plains. In winter, the Mediterranean winds cause snowfall here. The summers are mild and of short duration and the winters are cold and dry. Due to snowfall on the mountain ranges, the cold increases with height. The average annual rainfall in the state ranges from 75 mm in the north to 1150 mm in the southeast.

The Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir is administered under the provisions of Article 239 of the Constitution of India. Article 239A, originally drafted for the Union Territory of Puducherry, will also apply to Jammu and Kashmir. In Jammu and Kashmir, the government has supreme authority. Like any other state, it also has 3 branches - executive, legislature and judiciary. The executive branch is headed by the government which is also the head of the state. The executive authority of the state rests with the Chief Minister. The state Legislative Assembly has 89 members and the Legislative Council has 36 members.

The first person to become the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir was Mehar Chand Mahajan. He was sworn in as the first Chief Minister of the state on 15 October 1947.

The current Deputy Governor of Jammu and Kashmir is Manoj Sinha. Manoj Sinha was sworn in as the Deputy Governor of Jammu and Kashmir on 7 August 2020. The first Governor of Jammu and Kashmir was Yuvraj Karan Singh, who served in this post from 30 March 1985 to 15 May 1949.


The economy of Jammu and Kashmir is mainly dependent on agriculture and allied activities. The Kashmir Valley is also known for sericulture and cold water fish farming. Wood from Kashmir is used to make high quality cricket bats, known as Kashmir willow. Kashmiri saffron is also very famous and brings a large amount of foreign exchange to the state. Agricultural exports from Jammu and Kashmir include apples, barley, cherries, maize, millets, oranges, rice, peaches, pears, saffron, sorghum, vegetables and wheat, while manufactured exports include handicrafts, carpets and shawls.
About 80% of the state's population is dependent on agriculture. Paddy, wheat and maize are the main crops here. Barley, millet and jowar are grown in some parts. Gram is cultivated in Ladakh. The area of ​​the orchards is 242 lakh hectares. The state produces fruits worth Rs 2000 crores per year, including Rs 120 crores for walnut exports. The state of Jammu and Kashmir has been declared as an agricultural export zone for apples and walnuts.
The Jammu and Kashmir Board of School Education is the main board of school education in Indian-administered Kashmir that currently constitutes the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is located in Jammu and Srinagar and is an autonomous body under the administration of the Government of Jammu and Kashmir. The board gives affiliation to more than 10200 schools across the state and employs 22856 teachers. The Jammu and Kashmir State Board of School Education was established through a law under the Jammu and Kashmir State Board of School Education Act, 1975.
Mineral and fossil fuel resources are limited in the region. Much of this is concentrated in the Jammu region. Small deposits of natural gas are found near Jammu. Bauxite and gypsum deposits are in Udhampur district. Other minerals include limestone, coal, zinc and copper.
The population of Jammu and Kashmir according to the 2011 census is 1,25,41,302. The majority of the state's population is Muslim. Apart from the large number of Muslims, the state also has people from Hindu, Buddhist and Sikh faith. There is another community population in Kashmir valley called Kashmiri Pandits or Kashmiri Brahmins.
The costumes of Jammu and Kashmir basically consist of a broad loose gown. Trousers and coats are worn by men. Muslim women while wearing the veil basically wear a skull cap surrounded by a red plaque and in the case of Pandit women a white cloth plaque is worn.

Jammu and Kashmir has the highest proportion of Muslim population than any state in India. About two-thirds of the population here is Muslim. Jammu and Kashmir has a diverse and unique culture confluence that makes it different from the rest of the country. It is not only different from cultural and heritage point of view, but it is different from geographical, population, moral, social in every way. Its various cultural forms like art, architecture, fairs, festivals, rituals, customs, language, mountains all have an infinite history and this shows the unity in diversity of this state. Kashmir has been the center of Sanskrit and Persian learning. Here the early Indo-Aryan civilization began and nurtured. This is where Islam also came into India.

The costumes of Jammu and Kashmir originally consisted of a wide loose gown. Trousers and coats are worn by men. While wearing a watch, women originally wear a skull cap which is surrounded by a red plaque and in the case of pundit women a white cloth plaque.


Urdu written in Persian is the official language of Jammu and Kashmir. Other languages spoken in Jammu and Kashmir are Kashmiri, Pahari, Dogri, Balti, Gojri, Pashto, Ladakhi and Shina.
Like every state of the country, Jammu and Kashmir also has its own food. Rice is considered a staple food of Jammu and Kashmir. Meat is used in abundance here due to the high Muslim population. Other dishes include ragveda, macchi, chikkan, mutta, bucket curry and mutton. Green tea is a traditional drink and is made from almonds and spices called kava.
Some of the main festivals of this region include Navreh (Navchandra Varsha), Shivaratri, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid ul Zuha, Eid-e-Milad or Meeladunnabi, Meraj Alam, Muharram, Gompa, Hemis Utsav, Lohri, Ramban, Makar Sankranti and Bhadarwah in the month of August includes mela pat etc.
Jammu and Kashmir is a land inhabited by various tribal groups. These tribal groups are spread in almost every corner of the hill state and make its culture and tradition more rich and colorful. Dogri is the major language used by these tribals for communication between them. Dogri has the status of an official language under the Eighth Schedule. The present-day Jammu and Kashmir region is inhabited by a large number of tribes such as the Dogra populated in the plains, the nomadic hill tribes of the Gujjars and the hill tribes. These tribes of Jammu and Kashmir are authentic and distinctive. Ethnic culture of this primitive state and its tribal culture.
There are many famous tourist places in this state. The main tourist destinations of Jammu and Kashmir are the ice skating center, Chashmeshhi waterfall, Shalimar Bagh, Dal Lake, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Sonamarg and Amarnath mountain cave and Vaishno Devi temple near Jammu, Patni Top and Buddhist monasteries of Ladakh are the major tours of the state. Are centers.

Jammu and Kashmir state has a total of 22 districts, Leh is the largest district in terms of area and Jammu is the largest district by population.

List of districts of the state of Jammu and Kashmir: - Anantnag, Udhampur, Kathua, Kargil, Kishtwar, Kupwara, Kulgam, Ganderbal, Jammu, Doda, Panch, Pulwama, Budgam, Bandipura, Baramulla, Rajouri, Ramban, Reasi, Leh, Shupian, Srinagar and Samba.


Jammu and Kashmir FAQs:

𝒜. Jammu and Kashmir state got statehood on 31 October 2019.

𝒜. The capital of Jammu and Kashmir state is Jammu (winter), Shrinagar (summer).

𝒜. The folkdances of Jammu and Kashmir state are: Rauf, Heekat, Mandjat, Jump dandi dance, Damali.

𝒜. The state bird name is Not yet designated and the state animal name is Kashmir stag of Jammu and Kashmir state.

𝒜. The current chief minster is blank and the governor is Manoj Sinha (Lt. Governor) of Jammu and Kashmir state.

𝒜. The name of state flower is Lotus and the state tree is Platanus orientalis of Jammu and Kashmir state.

  Last update :  2022-06-28 11:44:49
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