Punjab History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts

Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Punjab, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Punjab have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.

Punjab Quick General Knowledge

State NamePunjab (पंजाब)
State LevelState
CapitalChandigarh
Statehood1 November 1966
Largest CityLudhiana
Total Area50,362 sq km
Districts22
Current Chief MinisterCharanjit Singh Channi
Current GovernorBanwarilal Purohit
State BirdNorthern goshawk
State FlowerGladiolus Gladiolus grandiflo
State AnimalBlackbuck
State TreeDalbergia sissoo
LanguagesPunjabi
State DanceBhangra, Gidda, Daffa, Dhaman, Bhand, Nakula.

Punjab (पंजाब)

Punjab is a state located in the northwest direction of the country. Chandigarh is the joint administrative capital of Punjab and Haryana. The state is bordered by Pakistan in the west, Jammu and Kashmir in the north, Himachal Pradesh in the north-east and Haryana and Rajasthan in the south. The total area of ​​Punjab is 50,362 square kilometers. The largest city of the state is Ludhiana. Other major cities of Punjab are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Patiala, Nawanshahar, Anandpur Sahib and Bathinda.

Definition of Punjab Word:

The word 'Punjab' is derived from the Persian 'Panj' meaning 'five' and 'Ab' which means 'water' which literally means 'area of five rivers'. Therefore, it is also called the land of the five rivers. These are the five rivers - Sutlej, Vyas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum.

Punjab used to be a part of India and Iran in ancient times. Punjab was ruled by many dynasties like Maurya, Bactrian, Greek, Shaka, Kushan, Gupta. Punjab remained under Muslim rulers during the medieval period. Ancient Punjab was first ruled by the rulers of Ghaznavi, Ghori, Ghulam Dynasty, Khilji Dynasty, Tughlaq, Lodhi and Mughal Dynasty. After two fruitless wars between the British and the Sikhs in 1849, Punjab came under British rule. After independence, Punjab was affected the most during the partition of India in 1947. Most of the destruction and damage was done to this state of North India. The eight princely states of East Punjab were merged to form the new state 'Pepsu' and Patiala was made its capital by forming 'East Punjab State Association, Patiala', but later in 1956, 'Pepsu' was merged with Punjab. Thus the state of Punjab was officially established on 01 November 1956.
Punjab is located in the northwestern part of the country. Its total area is 50,362 square kilometers. The state's latitudinal and vertical expansions are 29.30 degrees north to 32.32 degrees north, and 73.55 degrees east to 76.50 degrees east, respectively. Most of the area of ​​the state is alluvial and fertile plains. Punjab is also called the land of five rivers. These five rivers are Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum. The southwestern part of this province is semi-arid and meets the Thar Desert at the end of the state. The state bird of Punjab is the 'Northern Eagle'. The state tree of Punjab is 'Sheesham'. The state animal of Punjab is 'Krishnamriga'.
The climate of the state is varied from semi-arid to semi-moist due to the inland subtropical location. The summer season is extremely hot and the average temperature in June is 34 ° C. 45 ° C Is reached. Here in winter there is also a lot of winter. In January, the average temperature was 13 ° C. Occurs and sometimes goes up to -2 degrees. The monsoon season in the state is between July to September. Maximum annual rainfall in Punjab is 356 mm. From 1,245 mm. Happens till then.

Like other states of the country, the Punjab government also has three branches - executive, judiciary and legislative. The government of Punjab also follows the parliamentary system and the Chief Minister is the head of the government. Punjab has 117 Vidhan Sabha members, 13 Lok Sabha members and 7 Rajya Sabha members.

The current Chief Minister of Punjab is Charanjit Singh Channi. Gopi Chand Bhargava was the first person to become the Chief Minister of Punjab. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 15 August 1947.

The current Governor of Punjab is Banwarilal Purohit. Banwarilal Purohit was sworn in as the 29th Governor of Punjab on 31 August 2021.


As of the year 2004, the estimated total gross domestic product of Punjab is $ 27 billion. Production and commercial agriculture predominate in the state's economy and there are various small and medium-sized industries. Among the main states of India, Punjab has the highest per capita income. Punjab, with a land area of only 1.6 percent of India's total area, produces about 12 percent of India's total grain production.
Punjab is an agricultural state due to its rich water resources and fertile soil. The land here is very fertile. Here wheat and rice crops are mainly grown. Wheat and rice are cultivated in about three-fourths of the agricultural area. Other commercial crops are cotton, sugarcane, potato, maize, groundnut, gram, millet, pulses and oilseeds. In the last two to three decades, Punjab has produced 40 to 50 percent more production of wheat and has taken the title of being the 'food basket of the country' and 'grain store of India'. Punjab accounts for 1% of the world's total production of rice, 2% of wheat and 2% of cotton. Horticulture, floriculture, poultry and dairy industries are also developing gradually in the state. Anandpur Sahib has the largest grain market in the world.
Punjab has a current literacy rate of 77%. Primary education is compulsory for children from 6 to 11 years of age in the state.
Punjab is the 2nd largest province (area-wise) and has vast mineral potential in areas including coal, salt, iron ore, limestone, gypsum, and fire clay etc.
According to the 2011 census, Punjab has a population of 2,77,43,338. About 20% of the total population of the state is settled in Punjab, coming from other parts of the country. Sikh population in the state is more than 60% of the total population. Some of the other communities included in the state's population are Hindus, Jains, Muslims, Christians and others. Jats are Sikhs, an integral part of the Sikh community of the state.
The traditional dress for Jabi men is the 'Punjabi Kurta' and 'Tahmat', especially the popular Muktsari style, which is being replaced by the kurta and pajama in modern Punjab. The traditional dress for women is the Punjabi salwar suit which has replaced the traditional Punjabi ghagra.

The culture of Punjab province is diverse. The multifaceted heritage of the archaic civilization is reflected in the culture of the state. Bhangra, Jhumar and Sammi are the popular dances here. Gidda, the local dance form of Punjab, is a humorous song-dance style of women. Along with the religious music of the Sikhs, the ecclesiastical Mughal style is also popular, such as Khayal, Thumri, Ghazal and Qawwali.

The traditional dress for Punjabi men is 'Punjabi Kurta' and 'Tehmat', especially the popular Muktsari style, which is being replaced by the kurta and pajama in the modern day Punjab. The traditional dress for women is the Punjabi Salwar Suit which replaced the traditional Punjabi Ghagra.


The official language of Punjab is Punjabi. Many dialects are associated with the Punjabi language. About 25% of the people of Indian Punjab speak Hindi, especially in areas adjacent to Haryana and Rajasthan. Some of the special dialects spoken in Punjabi include Majhi, Puadhi, Malvi and Doabi. The most prominent dialect of the state is Majhi. More than 93% of Punjabi-speaking people live in India and Pakistan as their first language.
Vegetarian bhaji and mutton dishes are quite famous in the main mines of Punjab. Major dishes here include mustard greens, maize bread, rajma-rice, tandoori chicken, dal makhani and chickpeas bhature, etc.
Some of the special features of the festivals of the state include their famous dance forms, fun folklore and flamboyant clothes etc. Dussehra, Deepawali, Baisakhi and the anniversaries of various gurus and saints are celebrated in Punjab.
The Punjabi people are an Indo-Aryan ethnographic group associated with the Punjab region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent divided between present-day Pakistani Punjab and Indian Punjab. They speak Punjabi, a language of the Indo-Aryan language family. The word Punjab means five waters from Persian: panj ("five") and aab ("water"). The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors of the Indian subcontinent.
This earth belongs to the five rivers and the most important Sikh shrine. Golden Temple of Amritsar, Durgiana Temple, Jallianwala Bagh, Steel City - in Govindgarh, Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib in Anandpur Sahib, Khalsa Cultural Complex, Bhakra-Nangal Dam, Fort Inside Patiala, Motibagh Rajmahal, Wetland in Harike Pattan, of archaeological importance The Sangol and Chhatveer Zoo, the Mughal memorial complex at Mang Khas Bagh and the tomb of the Afghan rulers at Sirhind and Roza Sharif of Sheikh Ahmed, the Sodal Temple at Jalandhar and the memorial of Maharishi Valmiki are the main ones.

Located at the north-western tip of India, it is one of the prosperous states of the country, and is home to a vibrant, hospitable and dynamic people. Widely acknowledged as the cradle of civilization, it is a land of ethnic and religious diversity, which gave birth to and shaped many religious movements. Below is a list of some important tourist places in Punjab:-

  • Golden Temple of Amritsar
  • Durgiana Temple
  • Jallianwala Bagh
  • Steel City- in Govindgarh
  • Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib in Anandpur Sahib
  • Khalsa Cultural Complex
  • Bhakra-Nangal Dam
  • Patiala Fort in Interior
  • Motibagh Rajmahal
  • Wetland at Harike Pattan
  • Sangol and Chhatveer Zoo of Archaeological Importance
  • Mughal period at Aam Khas Bagh Memorial Complex
  • Tombs of Afghan Rulers in Sirhind
  • Roza Sharif of Sheikh Ahmed
  • Sodal Temple in Jalandhar and Memorial of Maharishi Valmiki

  • Total merchandise exports from Punjab stood at US$ 5.61 billion in FY20 and US$ 5.29 billion in FY21.
  • In June 2021, the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) announced the planned infrastructure development works worth Rs. 1,417 crore (US$ 194 million) in Punjab for the current fiscal (FY22). The annual plan will cover 295 kms of national highways.
  • In September 2020, the state government initiated 12 major projects to improve road connectivity in the state, under the central road and infrastructure fund (CRIF) at a cost of Rs. 211.22 crore (US$ 28.86 million).
  • In March 2020, the Punjab government allocated an outlay of Rs. 100 crore (US$ 7.45 million) under a ‘Smart School Policy’ for smart schools and digital education.
  • Under the State Budget 2021-22, Rs. 1,600 crore (US$ 220.47 million), Rs. 1,400 crore (US$ 192.91 million) and Rs. 114 crore (US$ 15.71 million) have been allocated for Smart Cities, AMRUT and Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban), respectively.
  • In March 2021, Union Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ announced opening of a new Kendriya Vidyalaya in Punjab.
  • Gross Enrolment Ratio for higher education in the state reached 30.3 in 2017-18.
  • Under Budget 2021-22, Rs. 3,822 crore (US$ 526.65 million) has been allocated for health and family welfare to strengthen health infrastructure of the state.


Punjab FAQs:

𝒜. Punjab state got statehood on 1 November 1966.

𝒜. The capital of Punjab state is Chandigarh.

𝒜. The folkdances of Punjab state are: Bhangra, Gidda, Daffa, Dhaman, Bhand, Nakula.

𝒜. The state bird name is Northern goshawk and the state animal name is Blackbuck of Punjab state.

𝒜. The current chief minster is Charanjit Singh Channi and the governor is Banwarilal Purohit of Punjab state.

𝒜. The name of state flower is Gladiolus Gladiolus grandiflo and the state tree is Dalbergia sissoo of Punjab state.

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