What was the Jallianwala Bagh massacre?
A crowd of at least 10,000 men, women and children gathered at Jallianwala Bagh (Amritsar), almost entirely surrounded by walls, to protest the arrest of two nationalist leaders, Satya Pal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew, on April 13, 1919.
And there was only one exit. The military officer, General Dyer (Michael Francis O'Dwyer) and his soldiers arrived and closed the exit. And without warning the people, General Dyer ordered his soldiers to shoot at the unarmed crowd for ten minutes. And the bullets continued till the end.
How many people were killed in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre?
There was no official number on the number of deaths during the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. The official inquiry by the British revealed that there were 379 deaths but according to Congress estimates, around 1000 people were killed and about 2000 were injured in those ten minutes.
Bullet marks can still be seen on the walls of Jallianwala Bagh which is now a national monument.
How did the Jallianwala Bagh massacre affect General Dyer?
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre was a calculated act and Dyer proudly declared that he did so to create a 'moral effect' on the people. He had made up his mind that if the revolutionaries continued their meeting they would shoot all the men. General Dyer had no regrets about this.
When he went to England some British collected money to honor him. But others were shocked at this brutal massacre and demanded an inquiry. A British newspaper called it one of the bloodiest massacres in modern history.
How did the Jallianwala Bagh massacre affect the Congress?
The massacre marked a turning point in the history of the struggle for independence. In December 1919, a Congress session was held in Amritsar. And it was attended by a large number of people including farmers.
It became clear that the brutalities of the British had only added fuel to the fire and strengthened the determination of the people to get freedom to fight against them.
Who were Dr. Satya Pal and Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew?
Congress leaders Dr Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr Satyapal from Amritsar were at the forefront of the protests. Satyapal (born 11 May 1885) was a physician and political leader in Punjab, British India, who was arrested along with Saifuddin Kitchlew on 10 April 1919. Saifuddin Kitchlew (born: 15 January 1888) was an Indian freedom fighter, barrister, politician and critic of the Pakistan Movement.
A member of the Indian National Congress, he first became the chief of the Punjab Pradesh Congress Committee and later the general secretary of the AICC in 1924.
What is the relation of Rabindranath Tagore to this massacre?
Rabindranath Tagore received the title of 'Knighthood' from the British (King George-V) in 1915. After this massacre, he renounced his 'Knighthood' title. He wrote in his letter to the Viceroy (Lord Chelmsford), and declared:
The time has come when the badges of honour make our shame glaring in their incongruous context of humiliation and I for my part wish to stand shorn of all special distinctions, by the side of those of my countrymen, who for their so-called insignificance, are liable to suffer a degradation not fit for human beings.
Who killed General Dyer and when?
Almost 21 years later, on 13 March 1940, an Indian revolutionary, Udham Singh shot dead Michael O'Dwyer, who was the Lieutenant Governor of Punjab at the time of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. The massacre angered the Indian people and the government responded with more brutality.
- List of Governors-General and Viceroys of Indian History 🔗
- List of 20 Historic Caves of India 🔗
- List of Governors-General and Viceroys of India 🔗
- Arrival of European Companies in India 🔗
- Top 47 Most Popular Newspapers in India by Circulation 🔗