List of major industries of India and important facts related to them
Who is Industry?
Industry is the human activity of manufacturing / producing a large quantity of goods in a particular area or at a large place or providing service on a large scale. Due to big industries, high quality products are available at cheap prices, due to which the standard of living of the people improves and life becomes more convenient.
History of Indian Industry:
India is not an industrial nation. It is a mixed economy nation. Agriculture was the mainstay of India's economy before independence. The establishment of modern industries or large industries started in India in the middle of the 19th century. When cotton textile industries were established by European businessmen or industries in Calcutta and Mumbai.
As a result of the First World War, there was a special development of cotton textiles in Gujarat, jute goods in Bengal, coal industry in Orissa and Bengal, tea industry in Assam. At that time, except cotton textiles, all other industries were owned by foreigners. After the First World War, there was progress in iron-steel, cement, paper, sugar, glass, textile, leather industries. During the Second World War, there were many difficulties in the path of industrial development of India such as:-
- lack of technical knowledge
- lack of means of transport
- Discouraging big industries by the government.
Between the two world wars, industries developed the most before independence. Hindustan Aircraft Company, aluminum industry, weapons industries developed during the world war. Hindustan Aircraft Company, aluminum industry, weapons industry developed during the world war. On the recommendation of Roger Mission, who came to India in 1940. It emphasized the expansion of India's industries.
Major Industries of India:
- Iron and Steel Industry
- Cement Industry
- Coal Industry
- Petroleum Industry
- Cloth Industry
- Gems and Jewelery Industry
- Sugar Industry
1. Iron and Steel Industry:
Iron and steel industry is considered to be the axis of economic development of a country. The first large-scale factory in India was established in 1907 by Jamsetji Tata at a place called Sakchi in the valley of the Subarnarekha river in the state of Jharkhand. After independence, a lot of attention was paid to it under the five year plans and at present 7 factories are producing iron steel.
TISCO : Tata Iron & Steel Company limited, Jamshedpur) India's first largest factory where 20% of India's steel is manufactured. This industry gets coal and iron from Bokaro, Jamshedpur, Orissa. It was established in the year 1907 by Jamsetji Tata. IISCO: Indian Iron Steel Company was established in the year 1874. It is the largest iron-moving industry in India. It has three units at Burnpur, Hirapur, Kulti (West Bengal). Name and location of major steel plants of India:
- Rourkela Steel Plant: It was established in Orissa with the help of West Germany.
- Bhilai Iron-Steel Plant: It was established in Chhattisgarh with the help of Russia.
- Durgapur Steel Plant: It was established in West Bengal with the help of Britain.
- Bokaro Iron-Steel Factory: It was established in Jharkhand with the help of Russia.
- Vijayanagara Steel Industry: In Bellary district in Karnataka.
- Visakhapatnam Steel Industry: In Andhra Pradesh.
- Fusion Steel Industry Plant: In Tamil Nadu.
- Dateri Steel Industry: In Orissa.
2. Aluminum Industry:
Under the aluminum industry, it is made from the raw metal of bauxite. Due to the need for large quantities of coal to smelt bauxite, aluminum factories are set up in areas where the two minerals co-exist. The first aluminum factory in India was established in 1937 by J.K. The city was established in the name of 'Aluminium Corporation of India'. Name and location of major factories of aluminum industry in India:
- Indian Aluminum Company (1938):- Located in Bihar.
- Bharat Aluminum Company (BALCO):- Established at Korba in Chhattisgarh.
- Hindalco:- Located in Rainkoot, Uttar Pradesh.
- NALCO (1981) :- The largest public sector unit of the country. It has 3 units in
- Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.
3. Cement Industry:
Importance of Cement Industry: Presently, Indian cement industry not only ranks second in the production of cement in the world, but also produces cement of world class quality. Status of the cement industry from the beginning till now: In the year 1904, the first cement factory of India was opened in Madras (now Chennai) which failed but between 1912-14, 3 big cement factories were opened:
- Porbandar (Gujarat).
- Katni (Madhya Pradesh).
- Under the industrial policy announced in 1991, the cement industry was de-licensed.
- At the end of March 2011, there are 166 large cement plants in the country, apart from this, there are a total of 350 small cement plants in the country.
- The export of cement and bricks stood at 40 lakh tonnes in the year 2010-11.
- Indian cement has made its reach in the market of countries like Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Middle East Asia, Myanmar, Africa, etc.
- Cement companies of India are: Birla Cement, J-P- Cement, ACC Cement and Bangar Cement.
4. Coal Industry:
Importance of Coal: The Indian coal industry is a basic industry on which the development of other industries depends. In the present time, the importance of coal industry as a means of power increases very much. There are two coal producing regions in India:
- West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
- The Gondwana region accounts for 98% of the total coal received in India.
- Anthracite and bituminous types of coal are obtained from this area.
2. Tertiary Coalfields:
- Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Assam, Meghalaya and Uttar Pradesh.
- Tertiary coal sector accounts for 2% of the total coal received in India.
- Lignite type of coal is obtained from this area, which is also known as 'brown coal'.
Present Status of Coal Industry:
- According to the Geological Survey of India, India has a reserve of 285.87 billion tonnes of coal reserves as of April 1, 2011.
- The capital employed in the coal industry is 800 crores and it provides employment to more than 7 lakh people.
- The states with the highest reserves of coal in India (as of January 2008) are—(1) Jharkhand, (2) Orissa,
- (3) Chhattisgarh, (4) West Bengal and (5) Andhra Pradesh.
The major coalfields of India are Raniganj, Jharia, East and West Bokaro, Tawa Ghati, Jalchar, Chandravardha and Godavari Valley. At present, the Indian coal industry is operated and controlled by two major public sector entities:
- Coal India Ltd- (Coal India Ltd.—CIL): It is a holding company controlling about 86% of the total production of coal. There are 7 companies working under it.
- Singareni Collieries Company Ltd.—SCCL It is a Joint Venture between the Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Central Government.
Lignite variety of coal is found in India. 5. Petroleum Industry: Importance of Petroleum Industry: The importance of petroleum industry in India can be gauged from its demand and supply. The total reserves of crude oil in the country are estimated at 756 million tonnes. But still India is able to get only 20% of its total requirement through indigenous production. Status of Petroleum Industry since its inception:
- Till the year 1956, India had only one developed mineral oil production area which was in Digboi Assam. Oil is being extracted from the oil well of Digboi from where oil was extracted even today.
- At present, India is working to obtain mineral oil from Assam, Tripura, Manipur, West Bengal, Mumbai, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, coastal areas of Kerala and Andaman and Nicobar.
- The work of oil exploration and its production in India began extensively and systematically after the establishment of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) in 1956. In this sequence, Oil India Limited (OIL) became the second public sector company.
On February 1, 1994, the Oil and Natural Gas Commission was renamed as Oil and Natural Gas Corporation.
- In the year 1999, the Central Government has prepared a new policy for grant of licenses for exploration and exploration of oil and gas, New Exploration Licensing Policy.
- The bids for 33 oil blocks under the 9th round of NELP were invited by the government during 15 October 2010 to 18 March 2011, out of which 16 blocks have been allotted.
- At present there are 21 oil refineries in the country, of which 17 are in the public sector, 3 in the private sector and 1 in the joint sector.
Note: Government of India intends to introduce open acreage licensing policy for oil exploration and exploration after NELP. Under which the oil company can automatically select any new block and submit its proposal for oil exploration to the government, so they will not have to wait for the government offer under NELP. Latest Rectification House:
The following are the latest oil refineries in India: Bina Oil Refinery:
- It was inaugurated by Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh on May 20, 2011 in Sagar district of Madhya Pradesh.
- It is a joint venture between Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCI) and Oman Oil Company (BOL).
- In this 1% stake is held by MP Govt. Of, 26% stake is held by Oman Oil Company and the remaining 73% stake is held by Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd.
- The capacity of this refinery is planned to be 150 lakh tonnes in the year 2015-16.
Guru Gobind Singh Refinery:
- Located in Bathinda, Punjab, this refinery was inaugurated by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 28 April 2012.
- It is a joint venture between state-owned Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) and Mittal Energy Investment Private Limited of Lakshmi Niwas Mittal.
- With the commissioning of this refinery, the total refining capacity in India has gone up to 213 Million Metric Tonnes Annually (MMTPA).
- ONGC plans to set up 3 refineries—(1) Mangalore (Karnataka), (2) Kakinada (Andhra Pradesh) and (3) Barmer (Rajasthan).
- IOC plans to set up 2 refineries—(1) in Ennore (Tamil Nadu) and (2) in Paradweep.
Note: Based on the latest data of the International Energy Agency related to the consumption of mineral oil, America is the first, China is the second and due to the increasing energy needs by 2025, India is the world's third largest oil importer country after America and China. and the fourth place in this sequence will be of Japan. India and China will account for 45% of the global energy needs by 2030.
6. Textile Industry: Importance of Textile Industry: India's cotton textile industry is the largest 'organized industry' in the country, hence it occupies the first place among organized industries. The textile industry is the largest employment generating industry in India after agriculture. It is the only industry which is completely self-sufficient from raw material to production of finished goods (like ready-made garments). The importance of the textile industry can be understood from the following figures:
- Contribution of textile industry in the total industrial production of the country: 14%
- In GDP: 4%
- Total Manufactured Industrial Production: 20%
- In total exports: 24.6%
- Contribution to total import expenditure: 3%
- Its contribution in terms of daily generation: Provides employment to 3.5 crore people.
Status of the textile industry since its inception:
- The first cotton textile mill in India was established in the year 1818 at Fort Gloster (Calcutta) but this mill could not achieve its target.
- India's second mill 'Bombay Spinning and Weaving Company' was established in Bombay by KGN Daber in 1854. After that the industry continued to grow.
- At the time of independence (August 13, 1947) there were a total of 394 cotton textile mills in India.
- At the time of Partition (August 14, 1947), 14 cotton textile mills moved to Pakistan, and 40% of the total cotton-producing area went to Pakistan. This is the reason why India had to step into the field of cotton imports.
- The Government of India has de-licensed this industry through the Textiles Development and Regulation Order, 1993.
- The country's cotton textile industry is mainly concentrated in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat.
There has been a very close relationship between the Indian independence movement and the development of the cotton textile industry. The Swadeshi Movement against the partition of Bengal (October 16, 1905), the Non-Cooperation Movement (1920–22), the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930–31), the Quit India Movement (1942), etc., by promoting the boycott of foreign textiles and indigenous clothing. He contributed immensely in the development of the cotton textile industry.
- The Cotton Technology Mission was launched at the national level by the Ministry of Textiles and Agriculture on February 21, 2000. Under which 4 mini missions related to cotton research and development, marketing and processing are included.
- An Apparel Park has been set up at Tiruvar Ettivarampalayam village in Tamil Nadu to promote the export of readymade garments in the country.
- The foundation stone of this first textile park in the country at an estimated cost of 300 crores was laid on 4th July, 2003. Also this village has been named as New Tirupur.
For the development of the textile industry, the government has started the following schemes:
- Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme launched by Ministry of Textiles on 1st April, 1999. The scheme has been approved to be continued during 11th FYP as well.
- Deendayal Hathkargha Protsahan Yojana was launched from April 2000 to provide financial assistance for the expansion of handloom activities.
- For the development of the area of basic potential of the textile industry, the scheme for Integrated Textile Park has been implemented in August 2005, under which 25 SITPs are proposed to be established by the year 2007 and an investment of ` 18,550 crore will be made.
7. Gems and Jewelery Industry: Importance of Gems and Jewelery Industry:
At present, the top position in the major exported goods by India belongs to the 'Gems and Jewelery Industry'. India is linked with international production chains in this area. While on the one hand India imports the raw materials used in these industries from abroad, on the other hand it is doing the work of earning foreign exchange by exporting the finished gems and jewellery. Current Status:
- The Central Government has planned to accelerate the mining of precious gems in the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha, etc.
- The Central Government has given permission to several companies for the exploration of diamonds and other precious minerals in Andhra Pradesh.
- The government has de-licensed the import of rough diamonds with effect from April 1, 2002.
- The main exporters of gems and jewelery are the U-S-A, Hong Kong, UAE, Belgium, Israel, Japan, Thailand and the U-K-.
- The main markets for gems and jewelery exports are the U-S-A, Hong Kong, UAE, Belgium, Israel, Japan, Thailand and the U-K-.
Table Share of Gems and Jewelery Exports in India's Total Exports (in Percentage)
|The year||Percent share in total exports|
|2002–03||16.9 (highest share)|
|Ddo: Economic Survey 2011–12|
The largest share in the export of gems and jewelery is:
- The sculpted hero.
- The gold jewellery.
- The Colorful jewels.
- India is the largest exporter of gems and jewelery to America.
- India exports 70% of the total gems and jewelery to the US and the European Union.
- According to the Foreign Trade Policy (2009–14), 'there are plans to set up a diamond exchange with the aim of making India an international center of diamonds'.
8. Sugar Industry: Importance of Sugar Industry: Sugar is the second largest agro-based industry of the country after cotton textiles in India. This industry has the potential to develop with it a number of by-products related industries. Status of Sugar Industry since its inception:
- In the year 1950–51, the total number of sugar mills in the country was 138.
- The total number of sugar mills in India was 615 at the end of 31st March, 2008 which increased to 624 at the end of 31st March, 2009.
- Sugar production remained at a record level in the year 2010-11. The government had estimated the production at 23 million tonnes for this year as against 24.35 million tonnes in the latest estimates. This is the best production of the country till date.
- The annual consumption of sugar in India is about 23 million tonnes. With the production being around 24-25 million tonnes this year, there is also a possibility of export of sugar this year.
- Maharashtra ranks first in the production of sugar in India, as well as the largest number of sugar mills in Maharashtra (134).
- Brazil ranks first and India second in the production of sugar in the world ranking, but India ranks top in the world in the consumption of sugar.
- The per acre yield of sugarcane in India is about 15 tonnes which is very low as compared to other producing nations.
- The percentage of sugar in the sugarcane produced in India ranges from 9% to 10% while in other countries it ranges from 13% to 14%.
Problems of Sugar Industry:
- Able to utilize only a small part of the total sugarcane production by the sugar mills.
- Low productivity of sugarcane per hectare.
- Shortage of good quality sugarcane.
- Increase in production costs.
- The problem of modernization of mills.
- Seasonal industry.
- lack of research.
- Failure of sugar mills to fully pay the price of sugarcane to the farmers.
Important Government Efforts:
- From August 20, 1998, the government delicensed the establishment of sugar mills.
- Fair and remunerative price has been adopted by the central government in place of statutory minimum price to determine the price of sugarcane.
- Sugar Development Fund was established in 1982 to collect funds for the development of sugar industry. This fund works to provide loans on easy terms for modernization of mills and development of sugarcane in mill areas.
- The decision has been taken by the government to decongest the export of sugar. Under which sugar mills will be able to export sugar directly.
Note: Earlier, the export of sugar was possible only by the Indian Sugar Industry and General Export-Import Corporation. Important Institutions:
- Indian Institute of Sugar Technology Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh)
- Indian Sugar Research Institute: Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh)
- Indian Institute of Sugarcane Breeding: Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)
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