What is a political party?

Multi-party system in India is a multi-party party system in which smaller regional parties are more dominant. National parties are those which are recognized in four or more states. He is given this authority by the Election Commission of India, which reviews election results in various states from time to time. With the help of this recognition, political parties can claim exclusive ownership of certain identities, such as party symbols, until the next review of their status.

According to the Indian Constitution, India has a federal system with a central government in New Delhi and state governments for various states and union territories. That is why, national and state (regional), political parties in India are classified according to their influence in their region.

Who registers political parties?

The registration of political parties is done by the Election Commission and the registered political parties, whether national level or state level, are allotted reserved election symbols. In 1952, 14 parties were recognized by the Election Commission as national parties and 60 as state parties. Due to the decision of the Election Commission on 30 September 2000 to abolish the national political party status of the Marxist Communist Party, Janata Dal (United) and Janata Dal (Secular), this number was reduced to 4 and 48 respectively.

Later on December 1, 2000, the Election Commission declared the amendment in the Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment), 1968, and recognized the Marxist Communist Party as a national party. Thus at present the number of national political parties has increased to 5 and the number of state level political parties to 47. Apart from these, there are 612 registered but unrecognized political parties in India.

How are political parties recognized by the Election Commission?

Recognition to political parties is granted in accordance with the rules made by the Election Commission under the "Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968. A political party which wishes to register itself as a recognized political party can makes an application to the Commission.

What is the national party called?

A recognized party can be granted the status of a national party only if it fulfills any one of the following three conditions:-

  • That political party should have got 2 percent seats in the Lok Sabha (11 seats) from three different states.
  • That political party must have secured 6% of the total votes polled in 4 states and won 4 seats in the Lok Sabha in a general election to the Lok Sabha or the Vidhansabha.
  • A political party should be recognized as a state party in 4 or more states.

List of all national parties of India:

Name of the political party When formed
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 1980
Indian National Congress (INC) 1885
Communist Party of India (CPM) 1964
Communist Party of India (CPI) 1925
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) 1984
Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) 1999

What is a regional party?

A political party shall be deemed to be a recognized political party in a State only if it fulfills any one of the following conditions:-

  • That party has won 3% of the seats (minimum three seats) in the state assembly in a general election or in an assembly election.
  • That political party has won one Lok Sabha seat for every 25 Lok Sabha seats in that part of the State in a general election to the Lok Sabha or the Legislative Assembly.
  • At least 6 percent of the votes polled by that political party in a general election to the Lok Sabha or the Legislative Assembly in a State. Apart from this, the party must have won one Lok Sabha seat or two assembly seats in that state.
  • That political party should have got 8 percent of the votes in that state in any general election to the Lok Sabha or the Legislative Assembly.

List of regional parties in India:

Name of the political party Formation State/UT
Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) 2012 Delhi, Punjab
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) 1972 Puducherry, Tamil Nadu
All India Forward Bloc (AIFB) 1939 West Bengal
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen (AIMIM) 1927 Telangana
All India N. R. Congress (AINRC) 2011 Puducherry
All India United Democratic Front (AIUDF) 2004 Assam
All Jharkhand Student Union (AJSU) 1986 Jharkhand
Assam Gana Parishad (AGP) 1985 Assam
Biju Janata Dal (BJD) 1997 Odisha
Bodoland People's Front (BPF) 1985 Assam
Desia Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam (DMDK) 2005 Tamil Nadu
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) 1949 Puducherry, Tamil Nadu
Haryana Janhit Congress (BL) (HJC(BL)) 2007 Haryana
Hill State People's Democratic Party (HSPDP) 1968 Meghalaya
Indian National Lok Dal (INLD) 1999 Haryana
Indian National Muslim League (IUML) 1948 Kerala
Jammu and Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) 1932 Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party (JKNPP) 1982 Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party (JKPDP) 1998 Jammu and Kashmir
Janata Dal (Secular) (JD(S)) 1999 Karnataka, Kerala
Janata Dal (United) (JD(U)) 1999 Bihar
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) 1972 Jharkhand
Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Democratic) (JVM(P)) 2006 Jharkhand
Kerala Congress (M) (KC(M)) 1979 Kerala
Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) 2000 Bihar
Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) 2006 Maharashtra
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party (MGP) 1963 Goa
Manipur State Congress Party (MSCP) 1997 Manipur
Mizo National Front (MNF) 1959 Mizoram
Mizoram People's Conference (MPC) 1972 Mizoram
Naga People's Front (NPF) 2002 Manipur, Nagaland
National People's Party (NPP) 2013 Meghalaya
Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) 1989 Puducherry, Tamil Nadu
People's Party of Arunachal (PPA) 1987 Arunachal Pradesh
Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) 1997 Bihar, Jharkhand
Rashtriya Lok Dal (RLD) 1996 Uttar Pradesh
Rashtriya Lok Samata Party (RLSP) 2013 Bihar
Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP) 1940 Kerala, West Bengal
Samajwadi Party (SP) 1992 Uttar Pradesh
Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) 1920 Punjab
Shiv Sena (SS) 1966 Maharashtra
Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF) 1993 Sikkim
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha (SKM) 2013 Sikkim
Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) 2001 Telangana
Telugu Desam Party (TDP) 1982 Andhra Pradesh, Telangana
United Democratic Party (UDP) 1972 Meghalaya
YSR Congress Party (YSRCP) 2011 Andhra Pradesh, Telangana
Samajwadi Janata Party (National) (SJP) 1990 Uttar Pradesh

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  Last update :  Fri 27 Jan 2023
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