What is a political party?
Multi-party system in India is a multi-party party system in which smaller regional parties are more dominant. National parties are those which are recognized in four or more states. He is given this authority by the Election Commission of India, which reviews election results in various states from time to time. With the help of this recognition, political parties can claim exclusive ownership of certain identities, such as party symbols, until the next review of their status.
According to the Indian Constitution, India has a federal system with a central government in New Delhi and state governments for various states and union territories. That is why, national and state (regional), political parties in India are classified according to their influence in their region.
Who registers political parties?
The registration of political parties is done by the Election Commission and the registered political parties, whether national level or state level, are allotted reserved election symbols. In 1952, 14 parties were recognized by the Election Commission as national parties and 60 as state parties. Due to the decision of the Election Commission on 30 September 2000 to abolish the national political party status of the Marxist Communist Party, Janata Dal (United) and Janata Dal (Secular), this number was reduced to 4 and 48 respectively.
Later on December 1, 2000, the Election Commission declared the amendment in the Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment), 1968, and recognized the Marxist Communist Party as a national party. Thus at present the number of national political parties has increased to 5 and the number of state level political parties to 47. Apart from these, there are 612 registered but unrecognized political parties in India.
How are political parties recognized by the Election Commission?
Recognition to political parties is granted in accordance with the rules made by the Election Commission under the "Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968. A political party which wishes to register itself as a recognized political party can makes an application to the Commission.
What is the national party called?
A recognized party can be granted the status of a national party only if it fulfills any one of the following three conditions:-
- That political party should have got 2 percent seats in the Lok Sabha (11 seats) from three different states.
- That political party must have secured 6% of the total votes polled in 4 states and won 4 seats in the Lok Sabha in a general election to the Lok Sabha or the Vidhansabha.
- A political party should be recognized as a state party in 4 or more states.
List of all national parties of India:
|Name of the political party||When formed|
|Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)||1980|
|Indian National Congress (INC)||1885|
|Communist Party of India (CPM)||1964|
|Communist Party of India (CPI)||1925|
|Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)||1984|
|Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)||1999|
What is a regional party?
A political party shall be deemed to be a recognized political party in a State only if it fulfills any one of the following conditions:-
- That party has won 3% of the seats (minimum three seats) in the state assembly in a general election or in an assembly election.
- That political party has won one Lok Sabha seat for every 25 Lok Sabha seats in that part of the State in a general election to the Lok Sabha or the Legislative Assembly.
- At least 6 percent of the votes polled by that political party in a general election to the Lok Sabha or the Legislative Assembly in a State. Apart from this, the party must have won one Lok Sabha seat or two assembly seats in that state.
- That political party should have got 8 percent of the votes in that state in any general election to the Lok Sabha or the Legislative Assembly.
List of regional parties in India:
|Name of the political party||Formation||State/UT|
|Aam Aadmi Party (AAP)||2012||Delhi, Punjab|
|All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK)||1972||Puducherry, Tamil Nadu|
|All India Forward Bloc (AIFB)||1939||West Bengal|
|All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen (AIMIM)||1927||Telangana|
|All India N. R. Congress (AINRC)||2011||Puducherry|
|All India United Democratic Front (AIUDF)||2004||Assam|
|All Jharkhand Student Union (AJSU)||1986||Jharkhand|
|Assam Gana Parishad (AGP)||1985||Assam|
|Biju Janata Dal (BJD)||1997||Odisha|
|Bodoland People's Front (BPF)||1985||Assam|
|Desia Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam (DMDK)||2005||Tamil Nadu|
|Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)||1949||Puducherry, Tamil Nadu|
|Haryana Janhit Congress (BL) (HJC(BL))||2007||Haryana|
|Hill State People's Democratic Party (HSPDP)||1968||Meghalaya|
|Indian National Lok Dal (INLD)||1999||Haryana|
|Indian National Muslim League (IUML)||1948||Kerala|
|Jammu and Kashmir National Conference (JKNC)||1932||Jammu and Kashmir|
|Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party (JKNPP)||1982||Jammu and Kashmir|
|Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party (JKPDP)||1998||Jammu and Kashmir|
|Janata Dal (Secular) (JD(S))||1999||Karnataka, Kerala|
|Janata Dal (United) (JD(U))||1999||Bihar|
|Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM)||1972||Jharkhand|
|Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Democratic) (JVM(P))||2006||Jharkhand|
|Kerala Congress (M) (KC(M))||1979||Kerala|
|Lok Janshakti Party (LJP)||2000||Bihar|
|Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS)||2006||Maharashtra|
|Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party (MGP)||1963||Goa|
|Manipur State Congress Party (MSCP)||1997||Manipur|
|Mizo National Front (MNF)||1959||Mizoram|
|Mizoram People's Conference (MPC)||1972||Mizoram|
|Naga People's Front (NPF)||2002||Manipur, Nagaland|
|National People's Party (NPP)||2013||Meghalaya|
|Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK)||1989||Puducherry, Tamil Nadu|
|People's Party of Arunachal (PPA)||1987||Arunachal Pradesh|
|Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD)||1997||Bihar, Jharkhand|
|Rashtriya Lok Dal (RLD)||1996||Uttar Pradesh|
|Rashtriya Lok Samata Party (RLSP)||2013||Bihar|
|Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP)||1940||Kerala, West Bengal|
|Samajwadi Party (SP)||1992||Uttar Pradesh|
|Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD)||1920||Punjab|
|Shiv Sena (SS)||1966||Maharashtra|
|Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF)||1993||Sikkim|
|Sikkim Krantikari Morcha (SKM)||2013||Sikkim|
|Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS)||2001||Telangana|
|Telugu Desam Party (TDP)||1982||Andhra Pradesh, Telangana|
|United Democratic Party (UDP)||1972||Meghalaya|
|YSR Congress Party (YSRCP)||2011||Andhra Pradesh, Telangana|
|Samajwadi Janata Party (National) (SJP)||1990||Uttar Pradesh|
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