Pala Dynasty History and List of Important Facts:
The Pala dynasty originated from Gopal in Bengal in about 750 AD. This dynasty ruled Bihar and undivided Bengal from about 750 to 1174 AD. The dynasty was founded by Gopal, a local chief. Gopal rose to power in the middle of the 8th century in an atmosphere of anarchy. His successor Dharmapala (reigned around 770-810 AD) expanded the empire considerably during his reign and for some time he controlled Kannauj, Uttar Pradesh and northern India as well.
It was a pre-medieval dynasty. When a deep political, social and economic crisis arose in the whole of northern India after the Harshavardhana period, there was complete anarchy in the entire region of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. At the same time Gopal declared an independent state in Bengal. Gopal was placed on the throne by the people. He was a capable and efficient ruler, who ruled from 750 AD to 770 AD. During this time he got a monastery and university built at Oudantpuri (Bihar Sharif). The Pala rulers followed Buddhism. The Pala dynasty emerged in eastern India in the middle of the eighth century. Gopal is considered the founder of the Pala dynasty.
We also get to know about the Pala dynasty from Tibetan texts, although it was written in the seventeenth century. According to them, the Pala rulers patronized and promoted Buddhism and knowledge. The Nalanda University, which is famous throughout the eastern region, was revived by Dharmapala and donated 200 villages for its expenses. He also established Vikramshila University. Whose fame is only after Nalanda. It was situated on a hill top near the Ganges in Magadha. The Pala rulers also built viharas several times in which a large number of Buddhists lived.
Rise and Fall of Pala Dynasty:
The Pala dynasty remained a force even during the reign of Devapala (reigned circa 810–850 AD), they continued to attack both the northern part of the country and peninsular India, but from then on the empire began to decline. Mahendra Pal (late ninth century to early tenth century) of the Gurjara Pratihara dynasty of Kannauj made attacks as far as northern Bengal. The period from 810 to 978 AD is considered to be the decline period of the history of the Pala dynasty.
Vigrahapal is counted among the weak and incompetent rulers of this time. According to the inscription from Bhagalpur, Narayan Pal donated a village to the temple of Shiva at Buddhagiri (Munger), Tirabhukti (Tirhut), and got a thousand temples built. The power of the Pala dynasty was once again restored by Mahipala, (reigned about 978 -1030 AD). His dominion extended to Varanasi (present-day Banaras, Uttar Pradesh), but after his death the empire weakened once again. Rampala (reigned around 1075-1120), the last important ruler of the Pala dynasty, did much to strengthen the dynasty in Bengal and extended his power to Assam and Orissa.
List of Rulers of Pala Dynasty:
|Name of ruler||Reign period|
|Gopal I||(About 750 - 770 AD)|
|Dharmapala||(Circa 770 - 810 AD)|
|Devapala||(Circa 810 - 850 AD)|
|Shur Pal Mahendrapala||(Circa 770-810 AD)|
|Vigrahapala||(About 850 - 860 AD)|
|Narayanpal||(About 860 - 915 AD)|
|Rajo Pal||(Circa 908 - 940 AD)|
|Gopal II||(Circa 940-960 AD)|
|Vigraha Pal 2||(Circa 960 - 988 AD)|
|Mahipala||(Circa 988 - 1038 AD)|
|Naya Pal||(About 1038 - 1055 AD)|
|Vigraha Pal 3||(About 1055 - 1070 AD)|
|Mahipala II||(About 1070 - 1075 AD)|
|Shur Pal II||(About 1075 - 1077 AD)|
|Rampal||(About 1075 - 1120 AD)|
|Kumarpal||(About 1130 - 1140 AD)|
|Gopal III||(Circa 1145 AD)|
|Madanpal||(About 1144 - 1162 AD)|
|Govind Pal||(About1162 - 1174 AD)|