The United Nations is an international organization whose purpose is to maintain international cooperation and peace. The organization also works to facilitate international law, protect international security, economic development, social progress and human rights.

History of UNO:

In the First World War between 1914 and 1918, there was a huge loss of people and money, in view of this, all the countries of the world started feeling the need of such an international organization which would work to increase cooperation between international countries. To prevent the Second World War from happening, due to which the "League of Nations" was established on 10 January 1920. Initially the League of Nations worked very well, but with the passage of time, disputes between the countries started increasing and the League of Nations started failing and finally due to the failure of the League of Nations, the Second World War happened between 1939 and 1945 which was earlier. It was much more violent and tragic than expected. After this incident, all the countries of the world started feeling that they needed a big and powerful international organization, due to which the United Nations was established on 24 October 1945 as its successor after abolishing the League of Nations. At present there are 193 countries in the United Nations, almost all the internationally recognized countries of the world. The structure of this institution includes the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat and the International Court of Justice.

United Nations flag:

The flag of the United Nations, adopted as an official emblem in 1947, depicts a circular map of the world (as seen from the North Pole) in white against a light blue background, with olive branches. surrounded by necklaces. Olive branches are a symbol of peace.

United Nations Headquarters:

The headquarters of the United Nations is in Justice. On December 14, 1946, the United Nations voted in favor of placing its headquarters in the United States. John D. Rockefeller Jr. of America donated $8.5 million to buy seven hectares of land along the East River in New York. Some additional land was also made available in that area by the city administration. The organization building was completed in 1952. The temporary headquarters were built on Lake Success in Long Island, New York. The first session of the General Assembly was held in London on 10 January 1946.

Official language of the United Nations:

The United Nations has recognized six languages ​​as "official languages" (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish), but only two of these are considered operating languages ​​(English and French). At the time of establishment, only four official languages ​​were accepted (Chinese, English, French, Russian) and in 1973 Arabic and Spanish were also added. Controversy arose about these languages. Some people believe that the number of official languages ​​should be reduced from 6 to one (English), but they are opposed by those who believe that the official languages ​​should be increased. Many of these people believe that Hindi should also be made the official language of the United Nations. The United Nations uses British English instead of American English. The traditional Chinese alphabet was used until 1971, as the United Nations Taiwan government was considered the official government of China until then. When Taiwan was replaced by the present-day Chinese government, the United Nations began using the simplified alphabet.

Purpose of the United Nations:

The main objectives of the United Nations are to prevent war, protect human rights, international legal process, promote social and economic development, improve living standards, and cure diseases. The member nation gets a chance to handle international concerns and national affairs. To fulfill these objectives, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was ratified in 1948.

Important facts of United Nations Organization:-

Establishment October 24, 1945
Founding member 51 countries
The headquarters New York (USA)
Current Membership Number 193 (last member the Sudan)
Goals and Objectives Peace and security
Working languages English and french
First general secretary Trigveli (Norway)
Current secretary general Antonio Guterres (Portugal)
Total number of members of the Security Council 15
Number of permanent member countries of the Security Council 5 (U.S., China, Britain, France, Russia)
Number of non-permanent members of the Security Council 10 (tenure 2 years)
Tenure of secretary general 5 year

List of major independent organizations, headquarters, and year of establishment of the United Nations:-

Institution President Headquarters (Foundation Year)
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ku dungyu Rome, Italy (1945)
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Rafael Grossi Vienna, Austria
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Feng liu Montreal, Quebec, Canada (1947)
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Gilbert hongbo Rome, Italy (1977)
International Labor Union (ILO) Cow rider Geneva, Switzerland (1919)
International Maritime Organization (IMO) Kitac lim London, United Kingdom (1948)
International Monetary Fund (IMF) Kristalina Georgieva Washington, D.C., United States (1945)
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Holin zhao Geneva, Switzerland (1947)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Audrey azole Paris, France (1946)
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) lee yong Vienna, Austria(1967)
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Zurab Pololikashvili Madrid, Spain (1974)
Universal Postal Union (UPU) Bishar Abdirahman Hussain Bern, Switzerland
World Bank (WBG) David Mallag Washington, D.C., United States (1944)
World Food Program (WFP) David Beasley Rome, Italy (1963)
World Health Organization (WHO) Tedros adhanom Geneva, Switzerland (1948)
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Francis Gurry Geneva, Switzerland (1974)
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Petri talas Geneva, Switzerland (1950)

In addition to its many programs and agencies of the United Nations, its system is made up of 14 independent institutions. Independent entities include the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Health Organization. They have a cooperation agreement with the United Nations

Some of the major organizations and programs of the United Nations

  • International Atomic Energy Agency: This agency, based in Vienna, works for nuclear surveillance.
  • International Crime Commission: Based in The Hague, this commission is set up to prosecute people suspected of war crimes in the former Yugoslavia.
  • United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF): It looks after the health, education and safety of children.
  • United Nations Development Program (UNDP): It works to reduce poverty, develop infrastructure and encourage democratic governance.
  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development: This organization runs with the objectives related to the issues of trade, investment and development.
  • United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC): This organization strives to make international peace effective through social problems and assistance to the
  • General Assembly in international economic and social cooperation and development programs.
  • United Nations Council on Education, Science and Culture: This institution based in Paris aims to promote peace and development through education, science, culture and communication.
  • United Nations Environment Program (UNEP): The work of this organization based in Nairobi is to promote the protection of the environment.
  • UN Ambassador: Its job is to oversee the rights and welfare of refugees. It is located in Geneva.
  • World Food Program: This is the main organization created to fight against hunger.
  • Its headquarter is in Rome.
  • International Labor Union: Makes rules to protect the interests of workers and workers on international grounds.

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The headquarters of the United Nations Organization is located in New York City, United States. All important organizations and official programs of the United Nations operate here.

The United Nations Organization (UNO) was established on 24 October 1945, in San Francisco, California, United States. Presently 193 countries are its members.

The first woman President of the United Nations General Assembly was Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit of India. Vijay Lakshmi Pandit was the sister of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India. Vijay Lakshmi Pandit had made an invaluable contribution to India's freedom movement.

There are five permanent members of the United Nations, including the United States, China, Britain, Russia and France.

The Secretary-General of the United Nations is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendations of the Council of Ministers. It is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a period of five years. He can also be re-elected. In accordance with the United Nations Charter, the Secretary-General personally selects an international pool of skilled, qualified and integrity personnel to assist him.

  Last update :  Tue 9 May 2023
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  Post Category :  World Politics