Himachal Pradesh History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Himachal Pradesh, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Himachal Pradesh have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Himachal Pradesh is a state located in the northwestern part of the country. The capital and largest city of Himachal Pradesh is Shimla. Jammu and Kashmir in the north of the state, Punjab in the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh in the south, Uttarakhand in the south-east and Tibet in the east. Himachal Pradesh is also known as "Dev Bhoomi". The total area of the state is 55,673 sq km. is. According to Transparency International's 2005 survey, Himachal Pradesh is the second least corrupt state in the country after Kerala.
The influence of the Aryans in this region is older than the Rigveda. After the Anglo-Gurkha War, it came into the hands of the British colonial government. Till 1857, it was a part of the state of Punjab (excluding the Siba state of the Punjab Hills) under the rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Himachal Pradesh was made a Union Territory in the year 1950, but under the Himachal Pradesh State Act-1971 in 1971, it was officially made the 18th state of the country on 25 January 1971.
Located in the foothills of western Himachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh is at an altitude of 6500 meters above sea level. Its elevation is from west to east and north to south. Geographically, the region is divided into three categories: the outer Himalayas i.e. the Shivalik, the inner Himalayas i.e. the Central Zone and the Greater Himalayas i.e. the Alpine Zone. The main rivers here are Chandra Bhaga, Beas, Chenab, Sutlej and Ravi. Some of the glaciers of Himachal Pradesh are Bara Shiri, Bhaga, Chandra. The three main mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the Great Himalayas, the Small Himalayas; Those are called Dhauladhar in Himachal and Nagatibha in Uttaranchal. Renuka Lake is the largest lake in Himachal Pradesh. The state flower of Himachal Pradesh is 'Buransh'. The state bird of Himachal Pradesh is 'Western Trogopan'. The state tree of Himachal Pradesh is 'Deodar'. The state animal of Himachal Pradesh is 'Snow Leopard'.
Due to the height of Himachal Pradesh's sea level, the climate of the state is also varied. The climate here is semi-tropical to extremely cold. Himachal has three seasons - summer, autumn and rainy season. The summer here is from April to June, in which the weather is very pleasant and the winters are extremely cold due to heavy snowfall. The rainy season lasts from July to September.
According to the Indian Constitution, the Governor appointed by the President is the constitutional head of the state. For the discharge of his duties, he gets help and advice from the Council of Ministers, which is headed by the Chief Minister. Himachal Pradesh has 68 assembly seats. There are 04 Lok Sabha constituencies and 03Rajya Sabha seats in the state.
Political Parties of Himachal Pradesh
The major national political parties of Himachal Pradesh are the Bharatiya Janata Party, the Indian National Congress and independents. The state is currently ruled by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Current Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh is Jai Ram Thakur. He took oath as the Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh on 24 December 2017. The first person to become the Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh was Yashwant Singh Parmar of the Indian National Congress. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 8 March 1952.
Current Governor is Rajendra Vishwanath Arlekar. Rajendra Vishwanath Arlekari has been sworn in as the Governor of Himachal Pradesh on 07 July 2021.
The state depends on three of the economy (hydropower, tourism and agriculture). Major power projects of the state are Pong Dam Project (on Beas River), Bhakra Dam Project (on Sutlej River) etc.
Agriculture is the main occupation of Himachal Pradesh. About 50% of the state's people are based on agriculture. Important crops of the state include rice, barley, maize and wheat. Nestled in the lap of the Himalayas, the land of Himachal is fertile and favorable for the cultivation of fruits. Other fruits cultivated here are apples, figs, olives, haps, nuts, mushrooms, saffron and sharda melon. The state earns Rs 300 crore every year from apple cultivation.
According to the 2011 census, Himachal Pradesh has a literacy rate of 82.8%. Hamirpur district has the highest literacy rate in the state. There are thousands of schools in the state that offer primary and secondary education and are affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education or ICSE. Himachal Pradesh is the first state in the country to make elementary education accessible to every child.
Several types of mineral substances are also found in the state, including mainly limestone, dolomite-rich limestone, rock salt, silica sand and slate etc. Iron ore, copper, silver, glass, uranium and natural gas are also found here.
According to the 2011 census, Himachal Pradesh has a total population of 68,64,602. The state has a population of 34,81,873 males and 33,82,729 females. According to the 2011 census data, the sex ratio of the state is 972/1000.
Hindus constitute about 90% of the total population in the state. Himachal Pradesh has a significant population of Tibetans and Buddhism is the second major religion after Hinduism. Due to the state's border being divided with Punjab, people of Sikh community also live in cities and towns. The number of Muslims in the state is low.
Like other states of the country, the dress of Himachal Pradesh is also quite different. The traditional costumes of the state mainly include cholu, dohdu, dhiyathu (beautiful cotton cloth that is tied around the level forehead), kullu topi (famous), regata, bushhairi topi and kotnuma 'loiya' (all these are clothes made of them). etc. is included.
Himachal Pradesh is a multilingual and multicultural state. The cultural heritage of the state is very diverse, colorful and rich. It is performed in colorful clothes, sweet music, festive festivals, rhythmic dances and a simple yet rich lifestyle. Art and handicrafts are an integral part of the culture here. Folk dances of the state include Munjra, Dhili, Nati, Geh, Hudak, Thoda, Karthi, Khadtaire, Runjhka, Dhili, Pangwal, Sen, Kathi (famous dance of Kullu). Dodmala, Champakali, Chandanahar, Sabi, Gal Pattu, Karnaphool, Jhumku, Clove, Balu, Bulak, Bajuband, Kamarkandh, Pajeb are the major jewelery of the state. Music and dance are a special part of the life of Himachalis.
Like other states, the dress of Himachal Pradesh is also quite different. Traditional costumes in the state mainly include Cholu, Dohadu, Dhiyathu (beautiful cotton cloth which ties into the level forehead), Kullu Topi (Famous), Regata, Bushehri Topi and Cotnuma 'Loiya' (all of which are their garments). Etc.
The most spoken language by people in Himachal Pradesh is Hindi language. Other major languages of the state include Kangri, Pahari, Dogri, Kinnauri, Punjabi and Mandiali. English language is used to teach in Lon. Some forms of hills spoken in Himachal Pradesh are Churahi, Himachali, Mandeli, Kuluhi etc. Apart from this, people from other states like Marwari, Gujarati, Bihari, Bengali etc. speak their own language in their community.
The major delicacies of Himachal Pradesh include Rehdu (made from lassi and curd), Siduye, Aktoriye, Dham, Seppu, Wadi Badanae, Badaru etc.
People of all religions of the state celebrate their festivals with great pomp. International Himalaya Festival is celebrated in Dharamshala every year in Himachal Pradesh. Among the local festivals here are the Chishu of Lahaulis and the greenery of Lahaul and Kangra districts which are celebrated with great pomp. National festivals like Deepawali, Lohri, Baisakhi and Christmas are also very important for the people of Himachal Pradesh.
The main community of Himachal Pradesh is Rajputs who settled here long ago. A variety of other tribes reside in Himachal Pradesh. These include Ghirtha, Chaudhary, Brahmins, Rathi Kannet, Koli, Gaddi, Gujjar, Lahuli and Pangwal etc.
The state of Himachal Pradesh has hot water sources, historical fortifications, natural and man-made lakes, which attract tourists from all over the world. The State Tourism Development Corporation contributes 10 percent to the state's income. Important tourist places here are Rohtang Pass, Chamba, Kangra, Shimla, Kullu, Manali, Dalhousie, Reo Purgil, Manirang, Ramabung, Kinnaur Kailash, Shilla, Great Himalayan National Park, National Park Pin Veli, Pinaghati National Sanctuary, Kalatop Khajjiar Wildlife Vihar, Pong Lake, Pandoh Lake and Renuka Lake etc. are included.
There are a total of 12 districts in the state of Himachal Pradesh, Mandi is the largest district in the state by population. Himachal Pradesh has the following 12 districts: - Una, Kangra, Kinnaur, Kullu, Chamba, Bilaspur, Mandi, Lahul and Spiti, Shimla, Sirmaur, Solan and Hamirpur.