History, Functions and Main Powers of Election Commission of India:
The Election Commission of India is an autonomous and quasi-judicial body. It was formed to elect people's representatives in independent and fairly representative institutions in India. The 'Election Commission of India' was established on January 25, 1950.
The Commission currently consists of a Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. Conducting elections in a country with a large and huge population like India is a huge task. An Independent Election Commission has been set up to ensure that elections to both the Houses of Parliament - Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are free and fair.
Brief about Election Commission:
|25 January 1950
|First Chief Election Commissioner:
|Sukumar Sen (21 March 1950 - 19 December 1958)
|Current Chief Election Commissioner:
|Sunil Arora (2 December 2018 - October 2021)
History of Election Commission of India: The Commission currently consists of a Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. When it was first formed in 1950, it was a single-member body with only the Chief Election Commissioner till October 15, 1989. From October 16, 1989 to January 1, 1990, it was R.K. V.S. Shastri (M.C.) and S.S. as Election Commissioner.
Dhanova and VS. Sehgal became a three-member body. From January 2, 1990 to September 30, 1993, it became a single-member body and then from October 1, 1993, it became a three-member body.
Appointment and tenure of Chief Election Commissioners: The tenure of the Chief Election Commissioner of the Election Commission is 6 years. Earlier this period used to be 65 years. The honor and salary of the Election Commissioner / Election Commissioner in the protocol is similar to that of a Judge of the Supreme Court of India. The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed only by impeachment by the Parliament.
The Election Commission of India has the power related to elections to the Legislative Assembly, Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and President, while the power of election of Grampanchayat, Municipality, Metropolitan Council and Tehsil and Zilla Parishad rests with the respective State Election Commission.
Functions and Functions of Election Commission:
- It is the responsibility of the Election Commission to supervise, direct and organize the elections, conduct elections to the President, Vice President, Parliament, State Legislative Assembly.
- Prepares the electoral roll.
- Registers political parties.
- Classification, recognition of political parties as national, state level parties, giving election symbols to parties and independents.
- To advise the President/Governor on the disqualification of MP/MLA (except defection).
- Disqualification of persons for election using wrong electoral measures.
What are the main powers of the Election Commission?
According to the decision of the Supreme Court, the powers of the Election Commission in Article 324 cannot be controlled by the executive, its powers are controlled only by those constitutional measures and the election method made by Parliament, free in the country in the power to supervise, direct, control and organize elections.
And it is also implied to organize fair elections, wherever the Parliament law is silent regarding the election, the Election Commission has unlimited power to conduct fair elections, although natural justice, rule of law and power should be used properly by it, the main function of the Election Commission Following are the powers:
- The Election Commission cannot violate the law made by the legislature nor can it act voluntarily, its decisions are eligible for judicial review.
- The powers of the Election Commission are supplementary to the election laws and they cannot be used against the law made by effective and lawful process.
- This commission can determine the schedule of elections, has the power to allot symbols and give directions for conducting fair elections.
- The Supreme Court, while explaining its powers, said that it is the only tribunal that determines the election schedule, it is only his job to conduct elections.
- Article 14, 15 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 also empowers the President and the Governor to issue election notifications in accordance with the advice of the Election Commission.
Reforms made by the Election Commission in India: The following amendments have been made by the Election Commission of India under the Representation of the People Act, 1988:-
- Electronic voting machines can be used. They were used everywhere in the 2004 Lok Sabha elections.
- Compulsory registration of political parties will have to be done with the Election Commission, if it wants to contest elections, then a party will be registered only if it follows the fundamental principles of the constitution and includes them in its party constitution.
- Poll station capture, fake vote
Now practice related questions and see what you learnt?
- Union Public Service Commission ( UPSC ) Chairman, Functions and Role 🔗
- List of Important Committees and Commissions in India 🔗
- Chairperson of National Commission for Women from 1992 to 2023 🔗
- List of Finance Commissions Chairman and Functions 🔗