The most stringent judicial power at the state level is with the High Court in the country. There are a total of 25 High Courts in the country, out of which seven have multiple jurisdictions. They have jurisdiction over a state, union territory or a group of states. The oldest High Court was established in Calcutta in the year 1862. Civil and criminal subordinate courts and tribunals function under the High Court. But all the High Courts come under the Supreme Court of India.

List of Indian High Courts:

Courts (Establishment Year) Establishment Act Jurisdiction
Hyderabad High Court (05 July 1957) High Court Act, 1953 Andhra Pradesh and Telangana
Himachal Pradesh High Court (1971) Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970 Himachal Pradesh
Sikkim High Court (16 May 1975) 38th Amendment of the Indian Constitution Sikkim
Rajasthan High Court (21st June 1949) The Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949 Rajasthan
Meghalaya High Court (23 March 2013) North Eastern Region Reorganization Act, 2012 Meghalaya
Bombay High Court (14 August 1862) High Court Act, 1861 Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu.
Madhya Pradesh High Court (2 January 1936) Government of India Act, 1935 Madhya Pradesh
Madras High Court (5 August 1862) High Court Act, 1861 Tamil Nadu, Puducherry
Manipur High Court (25 March 2013) North Eastern Region Reorganization Act, 2012 Manipur
Patna High Court (2 September 1916) Government of India Act, 1915 Bihar
Punjab and Haryana High Court (15 August 1947) High Court (Punjab) Order, 1947 Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh
Delhi High Court (31 October 1966) The Delhi High Court Act, 1966 National Capital Territory of Delhi
Tripura High Court (26 March 2013) North Eastern Region Reorganization Act, 2012 Tripura
Jharkhand High Court (15 November 2000) Bihar Reorganization Act, 2000 Jharkhand
Jammu and Kashmir High Court (28 August 1928) Letter of Authority-Dan-Letter Issued by the Maharaja of Kashmir. Jammu and Kashmir
Chhattisgarh High Court (1 November 2000) Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2000 Chhattisgarh
Guwahati High Court (1 March 1948) Government of India Act, 1965 Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram
Gujarat High Court (1 May 1960) Bombay Reorganization Act, 1960 Gujarat
Kerala High Court (1956) State Reorganization Act, 1956 Kerala, Lakshadweep
Calcutta High Court (2 July 1862) High Court Act, 1861 West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar
Karnataka High Court (1884) Mysore High Court Act, 1884 Karnataka
Uttarakhand High Court (9 November 2000) Uttar Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2000 Uttarakhand
Orissa High Court (3 April 1948) Orissa High Court Order, 1948 Odisha
Allahabad High Court (11 June 1866) High Court Act, 1861 Uttar Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh High Court (January 1, 2019) Andhra Pradesh

Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court:

All the judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President of India in consultation with the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court compulsorily consults a group of four senior most judges before advising the President in this regard and on the basis of the advice received from this group, advises the President. According to Article 124, while appointing the Chief Justice, the President shall seek the advice of the judges of the Supreme Court of his choice.

At the time of appointment of other judges, he has to compulsorily follow the advice of the Chief Justice. According to Article 214 of the Constitution, there is a provision for a High Court for each State. Under Article 231, Parliament has the power to establish High Courts for two or more states. High Court declared as Court of Record as per Article 215.

Qualifications of a Supreme Court Judge:

  • The person should be a citizen of India.
  • A Judge of a High Court for at least five years or has served as a Judge of two or more High Courts continuously for at least five years.
  • Should have been an advocate in any High Court or Courts for ten consecutive years.
  • The person should be an eminent jurist in the opinion of the President.
  • To become a judge of the Supreme Court, it is mandatory for a judge to have five years experience in the High Court of any state and he should not have completed the age of 62 years.

Tenure of Supreme Court Judges:

The retirement age of the judges of the Supreme Court of India is 65 years. Judges can be removed by the President only on the basis of a resolution passed by two-thirds majority of both the Houses of the Parliament on proven misbehavior or incapacity (impeachment).

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  Last update :  Sat 15 Apr 2023
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  Post Category :  Government Organizations