Constituent Assembly of India

The Indian Constituent Assembly was formed to compose the 'Constitution of India'. It was elected by the 'Provincial Assembly'. The proceedings of the Constituent Assembly began on December 13, 1946 with an objective resolution moved by Jawaharlal Nehru. Which later became the Preamble of the Constitution.

How was the Constituent Assembly formed?

After independence from Britain, only the members of the Constituent Assembly became the members of the first Parliament. After the end of World War II in July, 1945, a new government was formed in Britain. This new government announced its new policy regarding India and decided to form a constitution making committee. To solve the question of India's independence, three ministers of the British cabinet were sent to India at that time.

In 'Indian History', this group of ministers is known as 'Cabinet Mission'. After India became independent on August 15, 1947, the Constituent Assembly became completely sovereign. This assembly started its work from 9th December, 1947.

Who were the main members of the Constituent Assembly?

The members of the Constituent Assembly were elected by the elected members of the Assemblies of the States of India. Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Abul Kalam Azad etc. were prominent members of this meeting.More than thirty members from the Scheduled Castes attended the meeting. Sachchidanand Sinha was appointed the first chairman of this assembly. But after his death, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected the chairman.

Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was elected the chairman of the constitution making committee. The Constituent Assembly met for a total of 166 days in 2 years, 11 months, 18 days. The press and the public were also allowed to participate freely in the meetings of the Sabha.

List of major Committees of the Constituent Assembly and their Chairmen:

Name of the main Committees of Constituent Assembly Name of the Chairman of Committees of Constituent Assembly
Rules of Procedure Committee Rajendra Prasad
Drafting Committee Bhimrao Ambedkar
Union Power Committee Jawaharlal Nehru
Union Constitution Committee Jawaharlal Nehru
Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas Vallabhbhai Patel
States Committee (Committee for negotiating with states) Jawaharlal Nehru
Steering Committee Rajendra Prasad
Adhoc Committee on the National Flag Rajendra Prasad
Committee for the function of the Constitution Assembly G V Mavlankar
House Committee B Pattabhi Sitaramayya
Language Committee ⁣Moturi Satyanarayana
Order of Business Committee K M Munshi
Provincial Constitution Committee Vallabhbhai Patel

Major committees of the Constituent Assembly of India and important facts:

  • The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to frame the Indian Constitution. After independence from Great Britain, the members of the Constituent Assembly became the members of the first Parliament.
  • On the basis of the recommendations of the Cabinet Mission, the Constituent Assembly, which framed the Constitution of India, was constituted in July, 1946.
  • The total number of members of the Constituent Assembly was fixed at 389, out of which 292 were representatives of British provinces, 4 were representatives of Chief Commissioner's Regions and 93 were representatives of princely states.
  • According to the Mission Plan, the Constituent Assembly was elected in July, 1946. Out of a total of 389 members, elections were held for the 296 members assigned to the provinces. In this, Congress got 208 seats, Muslim League got 73 seats and 15 other parties and independent candidates got elected.
  • The members of the Cabinet Mission were Sir Stafford Cripps, Lord Penthick Lawrence and A. B. Alexander.
  • On December 9, 1946, the first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held in the Library Building of the Council Chamber located in New Delhi. The oldest member of the Sabha, Dr. Sachchidanand Sinha was elected the temporary president of the assembly. The Muslim League boycotted the meeting and started demanding a completely separate Constituent Assembly for Pakistan.
  • Hyderabad was such a princely state, whose representatives did not participate in the Constituent Assembly.
  • The provinces or princely states were given representation in the Constituent Assembly in proportion to their population. Normally one seat was allotted for a population of 10 lakhs.
  • The representation of the provinces was divided mainly on the basis of population of three communities, these communities were: Muslims, Sikhs and commoners.
  • The 296 representatives of the British provinces in the Constituent Assembly were divided on communal basis – 213 commoners, 79 Muslims and 4 Sikhs.
  • The number of members of the Scheduled Tribes was 33 among the members of the Constituent Assembly.
  • The number of women members in the Constituent Assembly was 15. The women of the Constituent Assembly included Ammu Swaminathan, Annie Maskirin, Baghem Ejaz Rasool, G. Durgabai, Dakshayani Velayudhan, Hansa Mehta, Kamala Chowdhary, Leela Ray, Malti Chowdhary, Purnima Banerjee, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Renuka Ray, Sarojini Naidu, Sucheta Kripalani and Vijayalakshmi. Pandit etc. were involved.
  • On December 11, 1946, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected the permanent President of the Constituent Assembly.
  • The proceedings of the Constituent Assembly began on December 13, 1946 with the objective resolution moved by Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • On January 22, 1947 AD, after the acceptance of the Objective Resolution, the Constituent Assembly appointed several committees for constitution making. Prominent among these were- Negotiations Committee, Union Constitution Committee, Provincial Constitution Committee, Union Power Committee, Drafting Committee.
  • According to the plan of June 13, 1947 AD, after the partition of the country, the total number of members of the Indian Constituent Assembly was fixed at 324, in which 235 seats were for the provinces and 89 seats were for the native states.
  • After the partition of the country, the Constituent Assembly was reconstituted on October 31, 1947, and on December 31, 1947, the total number of members of the Constituent Assembly was 299, in which the number of provincial members and the number of members from princely states were 70.
  • After deliberating on the draft of the Constitution, the Drafting Committee presented its report to the Constituent Assembly on February 21, 1948.
  • The first reading of the Constitution in the Constituent Assembly lasted from November 4 to November 9, 1948 AD. The second reading on the constitution started on 15 November 1948, which continued till 17 October 1949. The third reading of the constitution in the Constituent Assembly started on November 14, 1949, which continued till November 26, 1949, and the Constitution was passed by the Constituent Assembly. At this time 284 members of the Constituent Assembly were present.
  • The process of constitution making took a total of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days. A total of Rs 63 lakh 96 thousand 729 was spent on the construction of the constitution.
  • The draft constitution was debated for a total of 114 days.
  • Out of some articles of the constitution, 15 ie 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 60, 324, 366, 367, 372, 380, 388, 391, 392 and 393 articles were changed only on 26th November, 1949. ; While the remaining articles were implemented on January 26, 1950.
  • The last meeting of the Constituent Assembly took place on January 24, 1950, and on the same day Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected the first President of India by the Constituent Assembly.

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