22 Parts, 465 Articles and 12 Schedules of the Indian Constitution:
India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic with a parliamentary system of government. This republic is governed according to the Constitution of India. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was made the chairman of the constitution making committee. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar created the Indian Constitution in 2 years, 11 months and 18 days.
The Constitution of India was passed on 26 November 1949 and came into effect from 26 January 1950. 26 January is celebrated as Republic Day in India.
History of 26 january
In December 1929, the annual session of the Indian National Congress was held in Lahore, the capital of the then Punjab province, and was presided over by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. In this session, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru had revolutionized the whole of India by presenting the proposal of "Purna Swaraj", he decided to celebrate 26 January as Independence Day, after which 26 January 1930 was celebrated in different places all over the country.
In which all the people collectively took an oath to achieve independence and the flag was hoisted, but India became independent on 15 August 1947 instead of 26 January, after which the Indian Constitution was implemented on 26 January 1950 to keep the history of this day alive. it was done.
Features of Indian Constitution:
- The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any republic in the world.
- It took about 2 years 11 months and 18 days to make the Indian Constitution.
- The Indian Constitution was prepared on 26 November 1949 but it was implemented on 26 January 1950, due to which India celebrates Constitution Day on 26 November and Republic Day on 26 January every year.
- The biggest feature of the Indian Constitution is that along with declaring India a democratic country, it provides 6 fundamental rights, directives of state policy and 11 fundamental duties to the citizens of India.
- When the Indian constitution was ready, it had only 395 articles and 8 schedules which were divided into 22 parts, but now the Indian constitution has 465 articles, and 12 schedules which are divided into 22 parts.
- The Constitution of India is neither too rigid nor too flexible. Rigid constitution means that amendments to the constitution require very special procedures, whereas a flexible constitution is one in which amendments can be made easily, and the Indian constitution is a mixture of both.
- The Indian Constitution also declares India a secular country, due to which all religions present in India get equal protection and support in the country.
The Constitution of India also declares India to be a country of federalism, due to which proper provision has been made for the distribution of power between the Union / Central and State Governments of India. India, despite being a federalism, provides single citizenship to Indian citizens.
- The Constitution of India also establishes the judiciary, executive and legislature in India and it also decides that the form of government of India should be parliamentary, under which India will have a legislature with two houses, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
- The Constitution of India provides for a parliamentary form of government whose structure is federal with few exceptions. The constitutional head of the central executive is the President. According to Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Council of the Union Parliament consists of the President and two houses known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha).
- Article 74 of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to assist and advise the President, the President shall perform his functions in accordance with the advice of this Council of Ministers. Thus the real executive power lies in the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister who is presently Narendra Modi.
List of Parts, Articles and Schedules of the Indian Constitution:
|Part 1||Union and its territories||Articles 1-4|
|Part 2||citizenship||Articles 5-11|
|Part 3||Fundamental Rights||Articles 12 - 35|
|Part 4||Directive Elements of State Policy||Articles 36 - 51|
|Part 4-A||Fundamental Duties||Article 51A|
|Part 5||Union||Articles 52-151|
|Part 6||State||Articles 152 -237|
|Part 7||Repealed by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956|
|Part 8||Union Territories||Articles 239-242|
|Part 9||Panchayat||Articles 243- 243O|
|Part 9-A||Municipalities||Articles 243P - 243ZG|
|Part 10||Scheduled and Tribal Areas||Articles 244 - 244A|
|Part 11||Relation between the Union and the States||Articles 245 - 263|
|Part 12||Finance, Property, Contracts and Litigation||Articles 264 -300A|
|Part 13||Trade, commerce and intercourse within the territory of India||Articles 301 - 307|
|Part 14||Services under the Union and the States||Articles 308 -323|
|Part 14-A||Tribunal||Articles 323A - 323B|
|Part 15||election||Articles 324 -329A|
|Part 16||Special provision relating to certain classes||Articles 330- 342|
|Part 17||official language||Articles 343- 351|
|Part 18||Emergency Provisions||Articles 352 - 360|
|Part 19||Miscellaneous||Articles 361 -367|
|Part 20||Amendments to the Constitution||Paragraph|
|Part 21||Temporary Transitional and Special Provisions||Articles 369 - 392|
|Part 22||Short title, commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeal||Articles 393 - 395|
Interesting facts of indian constitution:
- Do you know that the Indian Constitution is completely hand written, it was written by Prem Behari Narayan Raizada.
- The preamble page, along with other pages of the original Constitution of India, was prepared by the famous painter Beohar Ram Manohar Sinha from Jabalpur, who was then in Shantiniketan with Nrityalan Nandanal Bose.
- The original copy of the Constitution is still kept in the library of the Indian Parliament by putting it inside helium.
- There are 22 parts of the constitution which have 465 articles and 12 schedules.
- The Indian Constitution is the longest written constitution of any republican country in the world.
- It took 2 years 11 months 18 days to prepare the Indian Constitution.
This was discussed before the constitution was passed, in which 2000 changes were made.
- The Constitution of India was prepared on 26 November but it was implemented by the then government on 26 January 1950. After the Constitution was passed, it was signed by all 284 Members of Parliament, including 15 women members.
- Indian Constitution is said to be a mixture of several constitutions because it was helped by many constitutions.
- The Five Year Plan was taken from the Constitution of Russia and the Fundamental Rights were taken from the Constitution of America.
- Equality, monopoly and many other such rights were taken from the French Revolution. All these rights are very important even in today's context.
- The initial words of the Constitution are inspired by the Constitution of America, which are still mentioned today.
- The fundamental rights of any citizen are also inspired by the US Constitution.
- The significance of the Indian Constitution is proved by the fact that it is being used for the last 62 years and so far only 92 changes have been made in it.
- Awards given by the Indian government such as Bharat Ratna, Padma Bhushan, Keeti Chakra etc. are given on the day of Republic Day itself.
- There is such a rule in the Indian Constitution that on the occasion of Republic Day, the President will address the country on the occasion of Independence Day.