What is Protein?

Protein is actually a Greek word which means – most important. Protein or progesine is a complex geologically organic material consisting of molecules of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. In addition to these elements in some proteins, sulfur, zinc, copper and phosphorus are also partially present. These are the main components of protoplasm and are essential for physical growth and various biological activities. According to the chemical structure, proteins are divided into three categories called simple proteins, combined proteins and derived proteins. Simple proteins are formed only by amino acids and in the formation of complex proteins, molecules of some other substances are also combined with amino acids. Derived proteins are those proteins that are obtained from the breakdown of simple or combined proteins. The molecular amount of this substance formed by polymerization of amino acids is more than 10000. Primary form, secondary form, tertiary form and quaternary form are the four major forms of protein.

Main sources of protein:

1. Vegetarian Main Sources of Protein:

  • Gram, peas, moong dal, masoor dal, urad dal, soybean, kidney beans, cowpea, wheat, maize, tur dal, cashew nuts, almonds, pumpkin seeds, sesamum, milk

2. Carnivorous main sources of protein:

  • Meat, fish, egg, liver protein

Protein is found in large numbers in foods, such as: eggs, meat, fish, soybeans, milk and milk products etc. Soybean has the highest amount of protein among plant foods. It contains more than 40 percent protein. Boys in the age group of 16 to 18 years, who weigh 57 kg, require 78 grams of protein per day.

Essential proteins and their functions:

Body protein Work
Enzymes Biocatalyst, helper in biochemical reactions.
Hormones Regulate body functions.
Transport protein Hemoglobin transports various substances.
Structural proteins Makes cells and tissues.
Protective protein Helps to protect against infection.
Contractile Protein This muscle is responsible for contraction and movement, e.g. myocene, actin etc.

Main foods and protein content:

Food items Protein content
Soybean 43.2
Bengal gram, black gram, green gram, lentil, and red gram 22
Peanuts, Cashews, Almonds 23
Fish 20
Meat 22
Milk (Cow) 3.2
Eggs 13.3 (per egg)
Buffalo 4.3

Benefits of Protein:

  • Maintains proper functioning of the body.
  • Controls appetite.
  • Reduces stress.
  • Muscles get stronger.
  • Tissues are repaired.
  • Helpful in reducing weight.
  • The immune system is strong.
  • Makes hair and skin healthy and shiny.
  • Helps in keeping bones, ligaments and other connective tissues healthy.
  • Protein makes hair, nails, skin, muscle, bone and blood cells.
  • Chemicals found in the body, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes, also contain proteins.

Protein deficiency diseases (disadvantages):

  • Kidney diseases.
  • Disturbance of pH balance in urine.
  • Risk of kidney stones.
  • Consuming more than 30 percent of total calories is harmful.
  • The amount of ketones in the body increases which is a toxic substance.
  • Excessive protein increases cholesterol levels in the body, which can lead to heart disease, stroke and cancer.
  • By increasing the amount of protein, the intake of carbohydrates decreases, due to which the body gets less fiber.
  • The body has trouble getting rid of waste products from the metabolism of proteins.

Important facts about protein

  1. Protein is present in every cell of our body. Life would not exist without protein.
  2. According to research, protein is the most satiating macro, which helps explain why high-protein diets help promote weight loss and weight loss maintenance.
  3. Protein is made up of 22 amino acids, nine of which are essential, which means we must obtain them through food because our body cannot produce them.
  4. Each 4 grams of protein provides calories.
  5. You have to eat protein every day. The body cannot store protein like it can carbohydrates and fats.
  6. The life span of a protein in the body is two days.
  7. Proteins make up about one-fifth of our body weight.
  8. On the go or after the gym, in between meals, as a snack, or just before bed - protein shakes are a super convenient way to meet your daily protein intake.
  9. You can cook muffins, pancakes, and smoothies with protein powder.
  10. Modern Source Plant-Based Protein contains a unique blend of organic rice protein isolate, pea protein isolate, potato protein and cranberry protein in specific
  11. proportions, which helps give it a strong amino acid profile. who are vegetarian and like to exercise.
  12. Yellowfin tuna has the most protein (30 grams per 100 grams) of all fish. It is followed by anchovies- anchovies (29 g), salmon- salmon (27 g), halibut- halibut (27 g), snapper- snapper (26 g), and tilapia- tilapia (26 g).

Now practice related questions and see what you learnt?

Sources of Protein GK Questions and Answers 🔗

Read also:

Names of Proteins FAQs:

Protein is found in both plant and animal sources. Animal sources, such as beef, chicken, tuna, poultry, fish, contain high protein. On the other hand, major plant sources of protein include nuts, seeds, potatoes, whole grains and legumes.

Hemoglobin is a combined protein consisting of a protein called globin and iron ions. The hemoglobin present in the red blood cell carries or transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and it also carries carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Chloromycetin is an antibiotic which stops the growth of bacteria. It does so by inhibiting the synthesis of proteins needed by bacteria to carry out vital functions. It does not kill the bacteria directly, but inhibits their multiplication, and eventually kills the infection.

The proteins found in human hair and nails are known as keratins and such proteins are secreted by cells known as keratinocytes.

Hemoglobin is a protein found in the red blood cells of the blood, in which iron is found. It is a tetramer protein consisting of 4 chains c2 B2.

  Last update :  Thu 8 Sep 2022
  Post Views :  28960
  Post Category :  Medical Science