Sources, functions, effects, and main diseases caused by deficiency of vitamins

What is a Vitamin?

Vitamins are complex organic substances and participate in the metabolic activities of the body. They are also called enhancers. Deficiency of these leads to incomplete diseases. These are active and complex organic compounds made up of elements like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur. These are essential to keep our body healthy and healthy in minority. Their deficiency causes many diseases. They are divided into two categories:-

  • Water soluble vitamins, such as vitamins 'B', 'C'.
  • Fat soluble vitamins, such as vitamins 'A', 'D', 'K' etc.

Who discovered vitamins?

Discovery of Vitamins F.G. Huffkins, but it was given the name of vitamin by Mr Funk. Vitamins are organic compounds, which are necessary for the growth of the body and protection from diseases. It produces enzymes in the tissues. Vitamin "D" is made automatically in our body while vitamin "K" is made by bacteria called 'colon' present in the bowel.

The main diseases caused by vitamin deficiency:

  • Vitamin A deficiency – retinal and xerophthalmia.
  • Deficiency of vitamin 'B'-beri-beri, anemia etc.
  • Deficiency of Vitamin 'C' - Scurvy.
  • Deficiency of Vitamin 'D' - Rickets and Automalacia.
  • Deficiency of Vitamin 'E' - Reduced fertility.
  • Deficiency of Vitamin 'K'—Delayed clotting of blood.

List of main diseases caused by vitamins, their sources, functions, effects and deficiency:

Name of vitamin Source name Main deficiency diseases or effects
Fat soluble
A-retinal Milk, butter, egg, liver, fish oil. Rantaudhi.
Radapsin synthesis in the ophthalmic rods increases the epithelium level.
D-agacalcophral In butter, liver, fish oil, wheat, egg. Rickets, and osteomalacia
Metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, growth of bones and teeth.
E-tacafrol Green leaves, wheat, egg yolk. Lack of fertility, weak muscles.
Growth of germinal epithelium, activity of muscles.
K-naphthanquinone Green leaves, cheese, egg, liver, tomato. Blood does not clot.
Formation of Pathambin in the liver.
Water soluble
Vitamin B Complex
B-1 Thiamine Cereals, beans, yeast, eggs, meat, Beri-Beri
Essential for carbohydrate and fat metabolism
B-2(G) riboflavin Cheese, egg, yeast, green leaves, wheat, liver, meat. Cholecystitis, glaucitis and occasional dermatitis.
Metabolism and important, component of FAD.
B-3 Niacin, Nicotinic Acid Yeast, Egg, Liver, Meat, Milk, Almond, Walnut, Tomato, Groundnut, Sugarcane. Skin diseases, reduced growth, graying of hair, stiffness in the joints of hands and feet, swelling in the body, lack of sleep, defect in bladder mass.
B-5 Pantothenic Acid Mushrooms, eggs, sunflower seeds, sweet potatoes, avocados, broccoli, potatoes, beans, peas, pulses, dairy products, nuts (dry fruits), chicken, fish, cheeses. Diarrhea, Heartburn, Dehydration (loss of water), Joint pain, Swollen hardening of blood vessels, Depression.
B-6 pyridoxine Milk, yeast, meat, cereals, liver, vegetables, pulses and fruits. Anemia, skin diseases, muscle cramps.
Important in protein and amino acid metabolism.
B-12 cyanocobalamin Meat, fish, egg liver, milk, bacteria. Anemia and slow growth.
Increase production of blood cells.
Folic acid group Green leaves, liver, soybean, yeast, gum. Anemia, slow growth.
Growth, formation of blood cells, synthesis of DNA.
H-Biatin Yeast, Wheat, Egg, Peanut, Chocolate, Vegetable, Fruit. Skin diseases, hair loss, nervous system disorders.
Essential for the synthesis of fatty acids and the production of energy
C-ascorbic acid Fruits of the citrus family, tomatoes, vegetables, potatoes and other fruits. Scurvy disease.
Formation of intracellular somat, collagen, filaments, mats of bones, dentons of teeth.

Now practice related questions and see what you learnt?

Vitamin Deficiency Diseases GK Questions and Answers 🔗

Read also:


Vitamin-D deficiency can cause Rickets disease in children. Rickets is a nutritional disease affecting the bone health of infants and children. Vitamin D helps maintain balanced levels of calcium and phosphate in the body, which are important for bone formation and strength.

Deficiency of Vitamin B6 in the body causes anemia. Due to this disease, very few red blood cells remain in the body. Along with this, iron deficiency starts in the body, which is a very important reason for making a victim of anemia.

Vitamin A – This is the most important vitamin for the eyes. Green vegetables are beneficial for this. If you want to keep your eyes healthy, then you should include green leafy vegetables in your daily diet.

Due to deficiency of Vitamin 'A' many organs of our body are affected. The most effect is on our eyes, and the outer skin (epithelium) of the body is also affected.

Vitamin E mainly helps in the normal functioning of the sex glands. Vitamin E also plays an important role in the function of the immune system. It helps cells to fight infection. Vitamin E also plays an important role in the production of hormones called prostaglandins.

  Last update :  Wed 28 Sep 2022
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