Meghalaya History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts

Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Meghalaya, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Meghalaya have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.

Meghalaya Quick General Knowledge

State NameMeghalaya (मेघालय)
State LevelState
CapitalShillong
Statehood21 January 1972
Largest CityShillong
Total Area22,429 sq km
Districts11
Current Chief MinisterConrad Sangma
Current GovernorSatya Pal Malik
State BirdCommon hill myna
State FlowerPaphiopedilum insigne
State AnimalClouded leopard
State TreeAquilaria malaccensis
LanguagesEnglish
State DanceKa Shad Suk Minseim, Nongrem, Laho.

Meghalaya (मेघालय)

Meghalaya is a state located in the northeast of India. The capital of Meghalaya and the largest city of the state is Shillong. Assam is situated in the north of the state and Bangladesh in the south. The total area of Meghalaya is about 22,429 square kilometers.

During the partition of Bengal in 1905, Meghalaya became part of Assam and East Bengal. Lord Curzon was responsible for the partition of Bengal. When partition was canceled in 1912, Meghalaya became an integral part of the state of Assam. At the time of India's independence in 1947, Meghalaya with two districts enjoyed true autonomy within Assam itself. After the approval of the North East Act area in 1971, Meghalaya was recognized as a state. Meghalaya was given the status of a semi-autonomous state in 1970, before attaining full statehood. On 21 January 1972, the Jaintia Hills and the United Khasi Hills were merged to form the state of Meghalaya.
Meghalaya means the cloud of Megho, the fountain of clouds. There are many rivers here including Ganol, Umiam, Mingot, Mikhem and Darang. Apart from these rivers, you can find many more rivers like Umiam, Mavpa and Khari here. There are wide plains, hills and rivers, valleys. A narrow strip of flat land at the foothills of the mountain is along the international border of Bangladesh. The state flower of Meghalaya is 'Lady Slipper Orchid'. The state bird of Meghalaya is 'Pahari Myna'. The state tree of Meghalaya is 'white teak'. The official animal of Meghalaya is 'Malin Leopard'. The highest peak of Meghalaya is Shillong peak, which is 1966 meters high.
The climate of Meghalaya is subtropical (between hot and cold) and humid. The state receives annual rainfall from 1200 cm annually, due to which this state is called the most "moist" state of the country. The temperature here ranges from 20 degree to 29 degree in summer and between 11 degree to 21 degree in winter.

The Chief Minister of Meghalaya is the head of the government of the north-eastern state. According to the Constitution of India, the Governor of Meghalaya is the judiciary of the state, but the de facto executive authority is the Chief Minister. Mizoram has 60 seats in the Legislative Assembly, 02 in the Lok (Parliamentary) Assembly and 01 in the Rajya Sabha.

The major political parties of the state are United Democratic Party, Meghalaya Democratic Party, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Indian National Congress.

The state currently has a government of the Indian National Congress. The current Chief Minister of Meghalaya is Conrad Sangma. Williamson A., the first person to become the Chief Minister of Meghalaya. Was Sangma. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 02 April 1970.

The current Governor of Meghalaya is Satya Pal Malik. Satya Pal Malik was sworn in as the Governor of Meghalaya on 18 August 2020.


Like almost all other north-eastern states, Meghalaya is largely dependent on timber and wood based industries. The mining sector also contributes significantly to the state's income, and private entrepreneurs are involved in the process. Meghalaya is basically an agricultural state with about 80% of the population completely dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. About 10% of the geographical area of Meghalaya is under cultivation.
Agriculture is the mainstay of Meghalaya's economy. About 80% of the people of Meghalaya depend on agriculture and allied activities. Rice and maize are one of the major crops of this state. Other crops of the state include potato, turmeric, ginger, black pepper, betel nut, pan tapioca, short fiber cotton, jute and mesta, mustard and rapeseed, oilseeds (peanuts, soybeans and sunflower), cashews, strawberries, tea and coffee, mushrooms , Herbs, orchids etc. are also cultivated. Oranges (Khasi Mendarian), pineapple, banana, jackfruit and potato bukhara, pear and peach crops are also grown in the state in various fruits.
According to the 2011 census, the literacy rate of this state is 75.48%. Meghalaya is one of the least developed states of India. There are about 5,517 educational institutions in the state. The state also has a polytechnic and a university. There are also several secondary and higher level educational schools.

Many types of natural resources are also found in the state, which mainly include sillimanite, lime, coal and granite.

Major industries in the state include iron, steel, cement and industries.


According to the 2011 census, Meghalaya has a population of 2,966,889 crore. Males constitute 1,475,057 and females constitute 27.82% of the state's population.
Meghalaya is home to the Khasi, Jaintia and Garo tribes. Jansem is the traditional dress for women and is usually made of mulberry silk, a local specialty. Over the Jainsem, they wear a cotton shawl called tapa-moha. The men of the Garo tribe wear a loincloth as part of their traditional dress. The men of the Khasi tribe wear a long, unstitched cloth around their waist. During the festival of Ka Shad Suk Minsi, male dancers wear a beautiful turban made of silk, with a semi-circular plate of gold or silver around the neck.
Meghalaya is mainly dominated by three major tribes. There are some dance forms that are integral to the culture of Meghalaya such as Laho, Shad Nongkrem, Dorerata, Shad Sukminseem and Dokrusua. A large number of people believe that Shaad Sukminissim is the dance of 'happy heart'. The dance and drinking with the sound of buffalo horns, flutes and mridangas is an integral part of the social ceremonies and religious rituals here. The traditional dress of Meghalaya is Jimphong.
The official language here is English. Other languages spoken by the people of Meghalaya include Garo, Khasi, Var, Cherrapunji, Hinriam and Nar.
Meghalaya has its own distinct specialty of food. Local Jadoh with Pork cuisine is from Meghalaya. Other main dishes include Jadoh, Nakhum Bitchi and Pumaloi.
Pamblang-Nongkrem of Meghalaya is a major religious festival of specialties. Which is celebrated for five days. It is also known as 'Nongkrem'. Other major festivals in the state include Vangala, Behinikhalam Jaintia and Shad Suk Minseem.
Most of the population of the Ghalaya is tribal people. The Khasi group has the highest number of people in the state. The Garo is the second largest group after the Khasi. Other tribes found here mainly reside in the Khasi, Jaintia and Garo tribal communities. Apart from this, there are also Jaintia and Hajong people. About 15% of the population is unborn, which includes Bengalis and Sheikhs. Meghalaya is one of the 3 states in India that has around 70.3% of the Christian community's population.
Tourism is a very important part of Meghalaya's economy. There are many tourist places in Meghalaya, which attract tourists. Important tourist places here are Shillong, Umiam Lake, Cherrapunji, Mawsynram, Jakriyam, Myrang, Jowai, Nartiang, Thadalashin, Tura, Siju and Balpakram National Park, Nartiang Durga Temple, Sri Ramakrishna Temple, Mother Temple, Sri Ramakrishna Temple, Mahadev Khola There are Dham, Shillong Peak, Ward's Lake, Umiam Lake, Polo Ground, Elephant Waterfall, Balpakram National Park, Nokrek National Park, Lady Hydari Park, Mini Zoo and Siju Bird Sanctuary.

There are a total of 08 districts in the state of Meghalaya, East Khasi Hills by population is the largest district in the state with a population of 825922, while the largest district by area is West Khasi Hills.

Meghalaya consists of the following 08 districts: - East Garo Hills, West Garo Hills, North Garo Hills, South Garo Hills, South West Garo Hills, East Jaintia Hills, West Jaintia Hills, East Khasi Hills, South West Khasi Hills, West Khasi Hills and Ri Bhoi


  • Under Budget 2021-22, the state government allocated Rs 1,080 crore for the development of roads and bridges, Rs 820 crore for the health and family welfare department.
  • In May 2021, Chief Minister Mr. Conrad Sangma informed that the Central Government has approved a prospecting licence for coal mining in the state.
  • In FY21, Meghalaya Farmers Mobilisation Project will be implemented at a cost of Rs. 5.12 billion (US$ 69.55 million) over a five-year period. Programmes will be launched for the establishment of cluster-based, farmer owned and farmer-operated markets.
  • In currently, the Gross State Domestic Product (GDP) of Meghalaya reached Rs. 0.35 trillion in 2019-20. The state’s GDP (in Rs.) increased at a CAGR of 6.74% between 2015-16 and 2020-21.
  • In FY21, passenger traffic at Barapani Airport reached 5,690 and aircraft movements at the airport stood at 146.
  • Meghalaya ranked as the fourth best performer in the implementation of Swadesh Darshan scheme.
  • As of April 2021, Meghalaya had a total installed power generation capacity of 616.03 MW, comprising 354.53 MW from state utilities, 13.92 from private utilities and 247.58 MW from central utilities. Of the total installed power generation capacity, 409.27 MW was contributed by hydropower, 160.31 MW by thermal power and 46.45 MW by renewable power.



    Meghalaya FAQs:

    𝒜. Meghalaya state got statehood on 21 January 1972.

    𝒜. The capital of Meghalaya state is Shillong.

    𝒜. The folkdances of Meghalaya state are: Ka Shad Suk Minseim, Nongrem, Laho.

    𝒜. The state bird name is Common hill myna and the state animal name is Clouded leopard of Meghalaya state.

    𝒜. The current chief minster is Conrad Sangma and the governor is Satya Pal Malik of Meghalaya state.

    𝒜. The name of state flower is Paphiopedilum insigne and the state tree is Aquilaria malaccensis of Meghalaya state.

      Last update :  2022-06-28 11:44:49
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