Odisha History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Odisha, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Odisha have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Odisha is a state on the eastern coast of India. Odisha was earlier known as Orissa. The capital of Odisha is Bhubaneswar. The largest city of Odisha is Bhubaneswar. Due to the large number of beautiful and carved temples here, this province is also known as the "Land of Temples". 01 April is celebrated as Utkal Day (Odisha Day) in the state.
In ancient times, the state of Odisha was known as 'Kalinga'. The history of Odisha is about 5,000 years old. Odisha became famous due to the Kalinga rule. Ashoka was the greatest Mauryan ruler who conquered almost the whole of India and the surrounding countries. The Guptas ruled Odisha in the fourth century. In the 10th century, the Bhom Kara Empire and then the Soma dynasty ruled Odisha. Muslim rulers dominated here from the 13th and 14th centuries to 1568. Odisha has also witnessed the rule of the Nawabs and Marathas of Hyderabad. The British East India Company ruled in the early 19th century, they came here in 1803 AD. The coastal region of Bengal was converted into Bihar and Odisha. Bihar and Odisha were bifurcated in 1936. Odisha officially became a state of India in 1950.
Odisha is India's ninth region and 11th largest state by population. The total area of Odisha is 1,55,707 square kilometers. The state is surrounded by Chhattisgarh in the west, Andhra Pradesh in the south, West Bengal in the north-east and Jharkhand in the north. The Bay of Bengal is to the east of the state. The state has interior and sparsely populated hilly areas. Deomali, 1672 meters high, is the highest place in the state. The sea terrain and river valleys here are amazing. Major rivers of Odisha include Mahanadi, Brahmani and Vansadhara. The province has three main regions: plateaus, hills and coastal plains. Many deltas have been formed here due to rivers like Submarekha, Vaitarani, Rushikulya and Budhabalang. The Hirakud Dam near Sambalpur in Odisha is the longest earthen dam in the world. The state bird of Odisha is 'Himalayan Monal'. The state tree of Odisha is 'Burans'. The state flower of Odisha is 'Burans'. The state animal of Odisha is 'Sambar'.
The climate of Odisha is tropical humid-arid (tropical savanna grasslands). It experiences the highest winter in January, with an average temperature of 20 ° C. It remains the hottest month of May with an average temperature of 33 ° C. Rises to It rains here in the months of June to October. The average annual rainfall in the state is around 1,800 mm.
The Chief Minister of Odisha is the head of the government. According to the Constitution of India, the Governor is the legal head of the state government, but the real authority rests with the Chief Minister. The tenure of the government is for five years or the government can be dissolved even before the foot years. Odisha has 21 seats in Lok Sabha and 10 seats in Rajya Sabha in the Indian Parliament.
At present, there is a government of Biju Janata Dal in Odisha. The current Chief Minister of Odisha is Naveen Patnaik. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 21 May 2014. The first person to become the Chief Minister of Odisha was Harekrishna Mahtab. He was sworn in as the first Chief Minister of the state on 23 April 1946.
The current Governor of Odisha is Raghubar Das. He is sworn in as the 27th Governor of Odisha on 19 October 2023.
Odisha is a developing country in every field, and its economy is one of the fastest growing in India. Odisha has an agro-based economy which is in transition towards an industry- and service-based economy.
The economy of the state is mainly based on agriculture. About 80% of Odisha's population is engaged in agricultural work, although most of the land here is inaccessible or unsuitable for more than one annual crop. About 45% of the total area of the state is farmed. Rice is grown in 80 percent of its area. Sugarcane is the second largest cash crop in the state. Odisha ranks eighth in sugarcane production. The major crops here are paddy, pulses, oil seeds, jute, sugarcane, turmeric cultivation, coconut etc.
According to the 2011 census, Odisha has a literacy rate of around 73%, with males at 82% and females at 64%. This is the figure. Only a small part of Odisha's population is university-educated. However, higher education is available at many local universities (and many affiliated colleges). Among the universities, Utkal University (established in 1943) and Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (1962), both in Bhubaneswar, are the largest and most famous. Allopathic, Ayurvedic and Homeopathic medicines are imparted training in more than a dozen government and private colleges. Odisha also has many pharmacy colleges and nursing schools.
The mineral resources of Odisha are considerable. The state is a national leader in the production of chromite, bauxite (aluminum ore), manganese ore, graphite, and nickel ore. It is also one of the top producers of high-quality iron ore. Coal from the Talcher field near the east-central city of Dhenkanal provides the energy base for a number of the state’s large-scale industries.
According to the 2011 census, Odisha had a population of 4,19,74,218. The ratio of female to male is 978 females against 1000 males.
Famous sarees include Kataki sarees, Bomkai sarees and Sambalpuri sarees. These are decorated by women during festivals, marriages and other special events in Orissa. Salwar kameez is also worn by girls and women. They like to adorn themselves with lots of ornaments and ornaments.
Odisha is a bastion of rich tradition and culture and is reflected in its historical monuments, sculpture, artists, dance and music. There is a department in this state which looks at culture as well as promotes art and culture in a systematic way. There are many temples in this province and it is famous all over the world for this. Odisha, the classical dance of Odisha, has been in existence for more than 700 years. Originally it was a temple dance performed for God.
The tribes and tribals here also have a big role in the culture of Odisha. Odisha's famous Rath Yatra is held in Puri and is performed with great devotion and reverence. The handicrafts and handloom textiles here are notable. Filigree work, picture frames and ikat dresses are very famous.
Odia language is the official and most spoken language of the state. According to the linguistic survey, 93.33% of Odisha's population is Odia-speaking. Hindi is the second most popular and widely accepted language here. Apart from this, Urdu and Bengali are also spoken here and some people also speak Telugu. Odia was discovered in Urjung in 1051 AD. Its script was started in Bramhi and finished in Dravid.
The traditional food of Orissa is spicy and includes rice, vegetables, pulses, chutneys and pickles. Shrimp and flat pomfret fish are most famous in coastal areas. Orissa is known mainly for milk-prepared sweets. Some of the typical sweeteners include Rasgulla, Rasamalai, Chenapuda, Khirmahan, Rajabhaga, Rabri, Chinjahili, Rasabali (both made of milk) and Pitha (cake). Steamed food includes rice, lentils, vegetables, curries and sweet treats.
Odisha has many traditional festivals. The most unique festival of the state is the Boita Bandana (worship of boats) celebrated in October or November. Some of the famous fairs and festivals in Orissa include the Bali Yatra to Cuttack, Kalijal Island, Chilka Lake, the tribal fair of Bhubaneswar, Durga Puja, Mangal fair, the car festival of Lord Lingaraja of Bhubaneswar and the Rath Yatra in Puri.
The tribes and tribals here also play a big role in the culture of Odisha. The famous Rath Yatra of Odisha is held in Puri and is taken out with great devotion and reverence. The handicrafts and handloom textiles here are remarkable. Filigree work, picture frames and ikat dresses are very famous.
There are other famous tourist centers of the state. The most famous places in the state are the Sun Temple of Konark, Puri's Jagannath Temple, Nandankanan, Chilka Lake, Dhauli Buddhist Temple, Udayagiri-ancient caves of Khandagiri, Ratnagiri, Lalitgiri, Buddhist frescoes and caves of Udayagiri, panoramic mountain view of Saptasjya, Hirakund Places like Dam, Duduma Falls, Ushakothi Wildlife Sanctuary, Gopanpur Beach, Harishankar, Nrisinath, Tartarini, Taptapani, Bhitarkanika, Bhimkund Kapilash etc. are included.