Gujarat History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Gujarat, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Gujarat have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Gujarat is a state located in the western part of the country. The capital of this state is Gandhinagar. The area of Gujarat is about 196,024 square kilometers and according to the 2011 census the total population of the state is 60,383,628. There are a total of 40 ports in Gujarat. Kandla is the main port of the state. Ahmedabad is the largest city in the state of Gujarat. It is the seventh in the city in India.
The history of Gujarat is around 2,000 years old. It is believed that Lord Krishna left Mathura and settled on the west coast of Saurashtra, which is called Dwarka. In later years, Maurya, Gupta, Pratihara and many other dynasties ruled this region. The history of Gujarat can be divided into ancient, medieval and modern subclasses. Ancient history can be linked to the Indus Valley Civilization. After independence, Gujarat became a part of the Bombay state, which was ruled by the Indian National Congress. In 1960, the Bombay state was divided into Maharashtra and Gujarat and got the status of separate states.
Located on the western coast of Indian peninsula, this state has the third longest coastline in the country, which is 1300 km long. Geographically, the state has three main subdivisions: barren and rocky Kutch in the northeast, including the famous Rann or Desert of Kutch. The Sabarmati, Narmada, Tapi and Damanganga rivers pass through Gujarat. The northern and eastern part of the state is bordered by the Aravalli, Satpura, Vindhya and Sahyadri mountains. A large part of the state is covered with forests like Gir, Dang and Panchmahal. Both moist and dry vegetation is found in these forests. The species of trees available in the forests of Gujarat are - teak, khair, haldriyo, saadad and bamboo. The state bird of Gujarat is the 'giant flamingo'. The state animal of Gujarat is the 'Asiatic Lion'. The state tree of Gujarat is mango.
The southern part of Gujarat is humid and the northern part is dry. The annual average rainfall in the state is 33 to 152 cm while the Dang receives about 190 cm of rainfall. The difficult climate created by Gujarat being located on the Tropic of Cancer makes the Gulf of Khambhat and the Arabian Sea easy. The mountains and their slopes are full of temperate and sub-tropical forests, for this reason dwarf rododendron, oak, pine, maple, fur and juniper trees are found here as well as trees of sal and teak species.
The Gujarat Legislative Assembly has 182 members, and out of which 39 seats are reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Like other Indian states, the Chief Minister is the leader of the government and assembly in Gujarat and has special executive powers. The Governor is the head of the state and is appointed by the President and the members of the Legislative Assembly elect the Speaker, who presides over the meetings of the Legislative Assembly.
The current Chief Minister of Gujarat is Vijay Rupani. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 07 August 2016. The first person to become the Chief Minister of Gujarat was Dr. Jeevaraj Narayan Mehta. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on May 01, 1960.
The current Governor of Gujarat is Acharya Devavrata. Om Prakash Kohli is sworn in as the Governor of Gujarat on 22 July 2019.
Gujarat is the largest industrial state in India, which occupies some important businesses of the nation. Textiles, chemicals, electricity, electrical engineering, vegetable oils, soda ash and fertilizers are manufactured in the state. Being a mineral rich state, Gujarat fulfills 66% of India's salt requirement and 35% of its chemical requirement is also met from here.
The economy of the state is agrarian. Gujarat is the major state in the country producing cotton, tobacco and peanuts and provides raw materials for important industries like textiles, oils and soaps. Other important cash crops are Isabgol, paddy, wheat and millet. The major industries here are petroleum, agriculture, heavy minerals.
The Gujarat Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education was formed in 1972 after the enactment of the Gujarat Secondary Education Act 1972. Its chairman and vice-chairman are appointed by the state government. In Gujarat both private and government schools run here. One can also find schools run by several municipal corporations and trusts in Ahmedabad. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda is the only English medium university in Gujarat. It was ranked tenth in the list of best universities in India (August 2011 issue) by India Today.
Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Limited (GMDC) is a leading Indian state-owned mineral and lignite mining company based in Ahmedabad. The major mineral resources of Gujarat are natural gas, limestone, manganese, bauxite, china-clay fire-clay, calcite, dolomite, fluorspar, gypsum, bentonite, quartz, silica sand and steatite. Good quality limestone is excavated in parts of Saurashtra, Lakhpat, Kheda and Banaskantha districts of Gujarat.
Gujarat is the largest industrial state in India occupying some of the important businesses of the nation. Textiles, chemicals, power, electrical engineering, vegetable oil, soda ash and fertilizers are manufactured in the state. Being a mineral rich state, Gujarat meets 66% of India's salt requirement and 35% of its chemical requirement is also met from here.
According to the 2011 census, Gujarat has a population of 60,683,628 and the density of population is around 308 per sq km which is lower than other states. The ratio of men and women in the state to the number of women in the ratio of 1000 men is 918, which is less than other states. Gujarati and Hindi are the official languages of the state. Gujarati is spoken in 11 ways and people from different provinces in the state speak it. Some of these standards are Gujarati, Kathiyawadi, Kharwa, Khakari, Gamathi and Parsi dialects.
The people of Gujarat mainly wear turban, pleated jacket, long sleeve kurta, trousers, churidar (men) with baggy bottom, colorful ghagra chaniya and choli, Patan sarees and kediu etc.
Most of the folk culture and folklore of Gujarat is reflected by the legends associated with Lord Krishna mentioned in the Hindu religious literature Purana. The ceremony performed in honor of Krishna and Raslila is still popular as the famous folk dance "Garba". The forms of dances like Dandiya, Garba, Garbi and Padhar are famous all over the world. Many ragas like Khambavati, Todi, Lahti and Saurathi have originated from Gujarat itself.
The people of Gujarat mainly wear turban, plated jacket long sleeve kurta, trousers, baggy bottoms with churidar (men), colorful ghagra chania and choli, patan patola sarees and kediyu etc.
Gujarati is the most spoken language in Gujarat but Gujarat itself has eleven dialects, which are spoken in different regions of the state. Other languages spoken in Gujarat are Hindi, Marathi, Marwari, Sindi and Urdu. In the Kutch region, people have a separate mother tongue known as Kutch.
Like different states of the country, Gujarat's food is also different. Major dishes of Gujarat are Dhokla, Khandvi, Lapsi, Bafla, Thepla, Poha, Bhelpuri etc.
Some of the main festivals of this state besides Holi, Deepawali and Dussehra are celebrated here with other Hindu festivals like Makar Sankranti or Kite festival, Kachch Mahotsav, Modhera, Bhadra Purnima, Eid, Christmas and Mahavir Jayanti festival are celebrated with great pomp.
The population of Gujarat can be broadly classified as Indic / Bharatodhavabha (northern origin) or Dravidian (southern origin). The first class consisted of the Nagar Brahmin, Bhatia, Bhadela, Rabari and Meena castes (Parsis, originally from Persia, representing the later northern arrivals), while those of southern origin included Valmiki, Koli, Dabla, Naikada and Machchi-Kharwa Janajatiya. Huh. Scheduled Tribes and tribal tribes constitute around 5% of the state's population.
There are many famous tourist places in this state. Gujarat is also called the "Jewel of the West" and has a variety of museums, forts, sanctuaries, temples and many places of interest. The main tourist destinations of Gujarat include Hriday Kunj, Mahatma Gandhi's abode, Lothal or Indus Valley Civilization, Hatakeshwar Temple, Dhaulavariya, Dwarka, Pavagadh, Shamalji, Palitana Parvat, Jain Temple, Daboi, Patan, Modhera Nazar Bagh Palace, Dabhoi Fort, Gandhi Memorial Museum, Gandhi Museum, Baroda Museum and Picture Gallery are also visited by thousands of tourists every year.
Gujarat has a total of 33 districts. Kutch is the largest and Dangs is the smallest district of Gujarat. Surat district is the district with the highest population density.
Gujarat has the following 33 districts: - Ahmedabad, Amreli, Anand, Aravali, Banaskantha, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Botad, Chhota Udaipur, Devbhumi Dwarka, Dohad, Gandhinagar, Gir Somnath, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kutch, Kheda, Mahisagar, Mehsana, Morbi , Narmada, Navsari, Panchmahal, Patan, Porbandar, Rajkot, Sabarkantha, Surat, Surendranagar, Tapi, Dang, Vadodara and Valsad.