Goa History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Goa, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Goa have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Goa is a state located in the western part of India. The capital of this state is Panaji. Goa is the smallest in India by area and the second smallest state by population. Goa is known all over the world for its beautiful seaside and famous architecture. Goa has an area of 3,702 square kilometers. It is considered as the richest state in India due to its highest GDP in the country.
The history of Goa is very rich and varied. Goa was ruled by the Maurya dynasty in the third century BCE and was followed by the dynasties of Satyhanas, Chalukyas, Sriharas and Kadambas. Goa was ruled by Muslims in the 14th century, but the Portuguese defeated Muslims in 1510 and managed to establish their supremacy over the entire coastal region. The Portuguese established a permanent state in Velha Goa. In the year 1843, the Portuguese capital was moved from Velha Goa to Panjim. India gained independence in 1947, but even after 14 years, the Portuguese were seizing their rule over Goa. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army launched 'Operation Vijay Campaign', liberating Goa, Daman and Diu from Portuguese rule. Goa was officially declared a state in 1987.
The state is bounded by Maharashtra in the north, Arabian Sea in the west, Karnataka in the south and east. The latitude and longitude of Goa are 14 ° 53′54 ″ and 73 ° 40′33 ″ E respectively. Goa's coastline is 101 kilometers long. Goa can be divided into four regions. Coastal plains such as Mormugao, Tiswadi, Salsette and Bardez, and eastern mountainous areas including western ghats such as Sattari, Canacona, Sanguem and Ponda and plains, including coastal areas and rolling uplands, as well as areas in the Central Sanguem. , Bicholim, Pernem and Cupem. The main rivers of Goa are Mandovi, Zuari, Tiracol, Sal, Chapora and Talpona. It joins the Arabian Sea flowing through the state. The state bird of Goa is 'Shyam-Kalgi Bulbul'. The state animal of Goa is 'Gaur'. The state tree of Goa is 'Matti'.
Due to the uniform climate of Goa, the summer season of Goa is very hot and the winter season is very cold. It receives rainfall from the south-west monsoon between June and September. A large part of the state is covered with forests, due to which there is a lot of biodiversity in the state.
The Governor of Goa is appointed by the President for five years. He is also the Administrator of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli Union Territory. The Goa Legislative Assembly has 40 seats.
The current Chief Minister of Goa is Pramod Sawant. He was sworn in as the 13th Chief Minister of the state on 19 March 2019. Dayanand Bandodkar was the first person to become the Chief Minister of Goa. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on December 20, 1963.
The current governor of Goa is P. S. Sreedharan Pillai. P. S. Sreedharan Pillai was sworn in as the Governor of Goa on 07 July 2021.
Goa has a well developed social, physical and industrial infrastructure and virtual connectivity. The Gross State Domestic Product (GDP) of Goa in the year 2020-21 was Rs 815.02 billion at current. At the same time, the GDP (in Rupees) between 2015-16 and 2020-21 grew at a CAGR of 8.16%.
Rice is the main food crop in Goa's agricultural products. In addition, pulses, ragi and other food crops are also grown. Along with cash crops like coconut, cashew, betel nut and sugarcane, it also has pineapple, mango and banana. The state has dense forests of more than 1,424 square kilometers.
The education system in Goa is effectively streamlined in keeping with the National Policy on Education, 1986 as modified in 1992, to upgrade the quality of education at all levels. The state has already enacted the Compulsory Education Act (1995).
Though the state of Goa has recorded 87.40 percent literacy and a high attainment level, the need of the hour is to reinforce its educational policy towards bridging regional and gender gaps, reducing the drop-out rate, emphasizing skill development and vocational programmes to curb unemployment, improving quality of education, infrastructure development in schools, orientation of teachers, computer integrated education and upgradation of libraries.
The land of Goa is rich in minerals and raw metals, hence mining is the second largest source of the state's economy. Iron, limestone, bauxite, manganese, silica and clay are mined in many areas of Goa. 40 per cent of the country's iron ore is exported from the port of Marmagao, Goa. Sesa Goa, Dempo and Remnant are some areas of the state which are rich in iron ore.
There are 960 women against 1000 men in the state, which is very low according to the Scheduled Tribes there. According to government figures, about 60% of the state's population is Hindu, with Marathi, Telugu, Tamil and Gujarati and about 28% of the population being Christian. A special thing of Goa is that the caste system like the Hindus is also found in the Christian society here.
The dress of tribal people in Goa consists of a loincloth known as 'Kashti', with a blanket draped over its shoulders. The women wear a traditional saree with a knot tied using their 'kunbi pallu' and their dressing style is very distinctive.
Situated on the picturesque seashore, Goa province is famous for its natural beauty and unique culture. Before independence, this province had been a colony of the Portuguese and the French. Due to this, even today, the full impact of Western culture is seen on the living, language and food of the place. Dulpod and Mando are the two traditional forms of Goan music. Govans also like bhajans, kirtans and dramas along with western music. Traditional dances like Fugdi, Dekhanni, Dasavatara and Coridinho are also very much liked among the Govan people. Govan Theater is famous worldwide. Local people also make handicrafts from coconut, jute, wood, stone and cloth etc.
The main languages of Goa are Konkani and Marathi. Konkani is the official language of Goa. Konkani language is spoken most in Goa. Konkani as a native language is spoken by 61.21% of the people in the state. Apart from this Marathi is spoken 27.12%, Kannada 3.41%, Urdu 2.81% and Hindi 2.09%.
Like other states in the country, Goa's food is also different. Seafood is popular in Goa. The staple food of Goa is rice, fish along with curry. In Goa, coconut and coconut oil are widely used in cooking along with chillies, spices, edible vinegar. The most popular alcoholic drinks in Goa are feni, cashew feni, coconut feni.
All Indian festivals like Holi, Deepawali, Shivaratri and Dussehra are celebrated here with zeal and enthusiasm.
There are 4 main tribal communities in Goa, Gowdas, Kunbis, Velips and Dhangars. Most of the people would have heard of the former 2 than the latter.
Goa is also known as "pearl of east". There are about 40 big and small beaches here. Some of these beaches are of international standard. For this reason, Goa has a different identity on the world tourism map. Goa is most crowded during the summer months. Below is a list of the main tourist places in Goa:-
Palolem Beach – a place of peaceful atmosphere
Baga Beach – Enjoy Parasailing and Banana Ride
Dudhsagar Waterfall – A Place of Milk Like Water
Bom Jissus Basilica – Symbol of Religiosity
Aguada Fort – Original Place of Fine Photographs
Saturday Night Market – Buyer's Center
Mangeshi Temple – Sacredness of Shiva Temple
Naval Aviation Museum – India's only Naval Museum
Tito's Nightclub - Party's Bird
Martin's Corner - Seafood Hub
Anjuna Beach - Most Ancient Beach
Chorao Island – Nature's Lap
Goa has only 02 districts: -
A new Goa tourism policy 2020 has been framed Offer a uniquely Goan experience to visitors by presenting a versatile concoction of historic, natural, ethnic, cultural locations and attractions.
A second greenfield international airport is being developed in Mopa, Goa with an annual capacity to handle 30 million passengers by phase IV.
A new export policy for the state is also being prepared to promote exports for manufactured goods and surplus agriculture produce.
Merchandise exports from the state reached US$ 2.30 billion between April 2020 and March 2021.
As of October 2020, Goa had seven formally approved and three notified special economic zones (SEZs). However, there are no operational SEZs in the state and no in-principle approved SEZ.
Union Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has identified five islands in Goa, namely St George Island, Grande Island, Pequeno Island, Conco Island and Bhindo Island to carry out holistic development.