Andhra Pradesh History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Andhra Pradesh, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Andhra Pradesh have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Andhra Pradesh is a state located on the southeast coast of India. India is the 8th largest in terms of population and the fourth largest state in the country by region. The capital of Andhra Pradesh is Hyderabad. Hyderabad has been made the joint capital of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for 10. Amravati is the name of the proposed capital of Andhra Pradesh. Telangana is the 29th state of India. The area of Andhra Pradesh is 160,205 sq km. Andhra Pradesh is bounded on the north by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Orissa, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, on the south by Tamil Nadu and on the west by Karnataka.
The early history of Andhra Pradesh is found in epics like Aitareya Brahmana (circa 2000 BCE). It mentions that the inhabitants of Andhra Pradesh were originally of Aryan caste and lived in North India, from where they migrated to the south of the Vindhya mountains and merged with the Anariyo in due course. According to historians, the regular history of Andhra Pradesh starts from 236 BC. Centuries ago, Andhra Pradesh was a major Buddhist center and part of the vast kingdom of Emperor Ashoka. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, the Satavahanas established their empire in the region. The Chalukyas established their authority in Andhra Pradesh during the 7th century and remained there until the tenth century. After that the power here came to the Chola dynasty. Muslim rulers came to this southern kingdom in the 14th century and ruled the princely state for centuries, then finally annexed it by a commander of the Mughal ruler Aurangzeb in 1713. From the 17th century the British took control of many parts of the country. Lia and established the province of Madras.
After independence, the Telugu-speaking region was carved out of Madras province and a new state was created on 01 October 1953, which was named Andhra Pradesh. After the formation of the State Reorganization Act, 1956, the state of Hyderabad was merged with Andhra Pradesh and was established on 01 November 1956.
Andhra Pradesh is between 12 ° 41 ′ and 22 ° N latitude and longitude 77 ° and 84 ° 40′P॰ longitude. This state is made up of two topographic parts. The eastern part of the state is the Deccan plateau and the Eastern Ghats. The northern part of the state is the region of Telangana and the southern part is known as Rayalaseema. The northern region of Andhra Pradesh is mountainous. The major rivers of Andhra Pradesh are Godavari, Krishna, Penna and Tungabhadra. It is located in the Godavari delta in the north-east of the state. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are its other two neighboring states. The highest peak here is Mahendragiri, which is 1,500 meters above sea level. The state bird of Andhra Pradesh is the 'Indian Roller'. The state tree of Andhra Pradesh is 'Neem'. The official flower of Andhra Pradesh is 'Neelkamal'. The state animal of Andhra Pradesh is 'Krishnamriga'.
The climate of Andhra Pradesh is generally hot and humid. The southwest monsoon plays a major role in determining the climate of the state. But winters are pleasant in Andhra Pradesh. Summer in Andhra Pradesh runs from March to June. The temperature remains very high during these months. Temperatures here in the summer range between 20 ° C and 45 ° C.
July to September is a season of tropical rain in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavy rainfall during these months. It receives 125 cm of rainfall throughout the year. The winter season falls in the state around October. October, November, December, January and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. The weather is not very cold in winter due to the long coastal area of the state. Temperature expansion in winter typically ranges between 13 ° C to 30 ° C.
The present Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh Y. s. Jagan Mohan Reddy. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 30 May 2019. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy was the first person to become the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 01 November 1956.
The present Governor of Andhra Pradesh is Vishwabhushan Harichandra. Vishwabhushan Harichandra has been working as the Governor of Andhra Pradesh since 24 July 2019. Andhra Pradesh has a single-house assembly with 175 seats.
The economy of Andhra Pradesh is one of the fastest growing economies in India, with growth outstripping that of the wider Indian economy in the past few years. The economy is primarily dependent on agriculture, which directly and indirectly employs 62% of the population. The state has been ranked the best state in ease of doing business in the country by the World Bank. Some of the major industries in the state include machine tools, synthetic drugs, pharmaceuticals, heavy electrical machinery, ships, fertilisers, electronic equipment, aeronautical parts, cement and cement products, chemicals, asbestos, glass and watches.
Agriculture is a major source of Andhra Pradesh's economy. About 70 percent of the people of Andhra Pradesh are from agriculture and it is the main area of rice production in India. Historically, Andhra Pradesh has been called the "rice bowl of India". The main crops here are rice, maize, millet, pulses, castor, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, groundnut and banana. The forest area of the state is about 23 percent and the major forest products include teak, eucalyptus, cashew, bamboo and soft wood.
According to the 2011 Census of India, Andhra Pradesh (after reorganization) has an overall literacy rate of 67.35% (males 74.77%, females 59.96%), which is much lower than the overall national average of 74.04%. It is ranked 32nd among Indian states and union territories.
Andhra Pradesh has 44 identified mines listed in The Diggings™. The most commonly listed primary commodities in Andhra Pradesh mines are Iron , Copper , and Silica .
According to the 2011 census, Andhra Pradesh has a total population of 4,93,86,799. The male and female populations here are 2,47,38,067 and 2,46,48,731 respectively. The total area of this state is 160,205 sq km and the population density is 343 per sq km. According to the 2011 data, the total literacy rate of districts of Andhra Pradesh is 67 percent.
People of Andhra Pradesh often wear shirts (kameez) and dotted lungi or dhoti, on special occasions another small dhoti is folded on the shoulder with this lungi or dhoti, sandalwood or roli tilak is applied on the forehead. . Women here often apply turmeric kumkum and maang beni on the forehead along with a lightly embroidered sari, a waist band in the waist is also part of the women's attire.
Andhra Pradesh has a significant contribution to Indian culture. Architecture and painting have been highly developed in this area since ancient history. Kuchipudi is the most famous classical dance of Andhra Pradesh. Other dances of the state include Chenchu Bhagotam, Kuchipudi, Bhamakalapam, Burrakatha, Veeranatyam, Butte Bommalu, Dappu, Tappet Gullu, Talladi, Bonalu, Dhimsa, Kolattam and Chindu. Major tribes reside in Andhra Pradesh like Gond, Santhal, Bhil etc.
Telugu is the official language of Andhra Pradesh, with more than 85% people speaking Telugu. Telugu ranks third among the highly spoken languages of India. The Government of India designated Telugu as a classical and ancient language on 1 November 2008. Tamil is also widely spoken in the southern region and there are Kannada speaking people on the border of Karnataka. Hyderabad has a large number of Urdu speakers and has a population of about 07% of the state's population.
The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is noted as the most spicy of all Indian cuisines. Many types of variations are found in the cuisine of Andhra Pradesh. Indian pickles and chutneys, known as pachhadi in Telugu, are particularly popular in Andhra Pradesh and many varieties of pickles and chutneys are a specialty of this state. Among the pickles of mango, it is probably the most famous among the pickles of avakara andhra. Chutney is made from practically every vegetable, including tomatoes, brinjals and ambada (gongura). Lamb, poultry and fish meat are the most widely used in non-vegetarian dishes. Perhaps the most distinctive and popular of Hyderabadi cuisine is Biryani. Andhra Pradesh is also known for dishes like attu, dosa, ulavacharu and payasam.
In Andhra Pradesh people of all religions observe their 2 festivals with great pomp. Dussehra, Deepavali, Sri Ramnavami, Krishna Janmashtami, Ganesh Chaturthi and Mahashivratri festivals are celebrated among the Hindus. Similarly Muslim festivals like Bakrid, Eid-ul-Fitr and Christian festivals like Christmas, Easter and New Year are also celebrated with enthusiasm. However, the festivities of Telugu New Year Ugadi, Sankranti, Dussehra and Ganesh Chaturthi are unique in this state.
Twelve tribes in Andhra Pradesh, Bodo Gadaba, Gutob Gadaba, Bondo Porja, Khond Poroja, Parangiparja, Chenchu, Dongria Khond, Kutiya Kondh, Kolam, Kondareddy, Konda Savaras and Thoti are recognized as Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs).
There are many temples and historical tourist places in Andhra Pradesh. Tirupati temple in Chittoor district is one of the famous temples in India. Charminar, Salarjung Museum and Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, Sahastra Pillar Temple and Fort in Warangal, Golconda Fort, Srilakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple, Buddhist Stupa, Sri Tirupati Venkateswara Temple, Srimallikarjunaswamy Temple, Kanaka Durga Temple of Vijayawada, Sri Satyanarayana Swamy Temple, Sri Varaha Narasimha Swamy Temple, Sri Sitaram Temple, Arakughati, Horsley Hills, Seshachalam Hills, Eramala Ranges, Nallamalai Hills and Nelapatu etc. are important tourist destinations in Andhra Pradesh.
There are currently 13 districts in Andhra Pradesh: - Anantapur, Chittoor, East Godavari, Guntur, Krishna, Kurnool, Prakasam, Sri Potti Sriramulu (Nellore), Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, West Godavari and YSR.
In May 2021, the Andhra Pradesh government increased its health budget by 21.11% by allocating Rs.13,830.44 crore in the 2021-22 Budget for Health, Medical, and Family Welfare.
The Andhra government announced the construction of 16 new medical colleges and the upgrade of existing medical colleges and teaching hospitals under the 2021-22 budget.
In April 2021, the government announced that it would covert 10 major state highways in Andhra Pradesh into national highways at a cost of Rs 8,000 crore.
In February 2021, Finance Minister Ms.Nirmala Sitharaman announced the commencement of the Nadikudi-Srikalahasti railway project.
In February 2021, the state government announced the completion of the first phase of ‘Nadu-Nedu’—a scheme launched by the state government to take up basic infrastructure works—covering 15,700 schools, with the cost being Rs. 2,570 crore.
In February 2021, Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways Mr. Nitin Gadkari approved a proposal to construct a six-lane Kantakapalle-Sabbavaram section of NH 130CD worth Rs. 824.29 crore.
Andhra Pradesh is home to many global and national pharma players, and various companies have set up their manufacturing hubs in different cities of the state.