Arunachal Pradesh History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts

Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Arunachal Pradesh, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Arunachal Pradesh have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.

Arunachal Pradesh Quick General Knowledge

State NameArunachal Pradesh (अरुणाचल प्रदेश)
State LevelState
CapitalItanagar
Statehood20 February 1987
Largest CityItanagar
Total Area83,743 sq km
Districts25
Current Chief MinisterPema Khandu
Current GovernorB D Mishra (Retd.)
State BirdGreat hornbill
State FlowerRhynchostylis retusa
State AnimalGayal
State TreeDipterocarpus retusus
LanguagesEnglish
State DanceBuiya, Chalo, Wancho, Pasi Kongki, Ponung, Popir, Bardo Cham.

Arunachal Pradesh (अरुणाचल प्रदेश)

Arunachal Pradesh is a hilly state located in the north eastern part of India. The meaning of Arunachal in Hindi is "Mount of the rising sun" (Arun + Anchal). Itanagar is the capital of Arunachal Pradesh. It borders Assam to the south, Nagaland to the southeast, Burma / Myanmar to the east, Bhutan to the west and Tibet to the north. It also borders Nagaland and Assam. The main languages ​​of Arunachal Pradesh are Hindi and Assamese. This state is geographically the largest among the northeastern states. The total area of ​​this state is 83,743 sq km.

The Yandabu Pact was signed on 24 February 1826, after which British rule came into force in Assam. Since then, modern history of Arunachal Pradesh is obtained. Before 1962, this state was known as North East Frontier Agency (North East Frontier Agency- NEFA). Constitutionally it was a part of Assam, but due to its strategic importance, the Ministry of External Affairs took care of the administration till 1965. After the year 1965, the administration of Assam by the Governor of Assam came under the Ministry of Home Affairs. In 1972, it was made a Union Territory by renaming it 'Arunachal Pradesh'. After this, on 20 February 1987, Arunachal Pradesh got full state status and it was made the 24th state of the country.
Most of this state is covered by the Himalayas. This mountain range separates Arunachal Pradesh from Tibet in the east. Kongto, Nygei Kangsang, Main Gorichan Peak and East Gorichan Peak are the highest peaks of the Himalayas in this region. This state consists of hilly and semi-hilly regions. The slope of its mountains is towards the plains of the state of Assam. The major rivers of Arunachal Pradesh are Kameng, Subansiri, Siang, Lohit and Tirap. Various types of green valleys, flora and fauna are the main feature of Arunachal Pradesh. Orchid flowers are also found here. The mountains and their slopes are full of temperate and sub-tropical forests, for this reason dwarf rododendron, oak, pine, maple, fur and juniper trees are found here as well as trees of sal and teak species. The state bird of Arunachal Pradesh is 'Great Indian Hornbill'. The state tree of Arunachal Pradesh is 'Holong'. The state flower of Arunachal Pradesh is 'Retusa'. Mithun is the state animal of Arunachal Pradesh.
The climate of Arunachal Pradesh changes with the shape and height of the land. The state's weather varies. High altitude places such as the adjoining areas of Tibet located in the upper Himalayas have an alpine or tundra type of weather. The weather is temperate in the central Himalayan parts. The average annual rainfall here is 2000 to 4000 mm. Happens till then.

The current Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh is Pema Khandu. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 17 July 2016. On 16 September 2016, Pema Khandu left the Indian National Congress with 43 ruling MLAs and joined the People's Party of Arunachal and formed a government with the Bharatiya Janata Party. Prem Khandu Thungan was the first person to become the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 13 August 1975.

The current Governor of Arunachal Pradesh is Biswa Bhushan Harichandan. Biswa Bhushan Harichandan was sworn in as the Governor of Arunachal Pradesh on 24 July 2019.

There are mainly five political parties in Arunachal Pradesh - Bharatiya Janata Party, Arunachal Congress, Arunachal Congress (Meitee), Congress (Dolo), People's Party of Arunachal.


Arunachal Pradesh still remains an underdeveloped state with a traditional economy. The state is suffering from impaired economic development due to the difficult terrain and extremely high cost of providing administrative, social and economic infrastructure.
Agriculture is the main means of livelihood of the people of the state. The economy of Arunachal Pradesh is mainly based on 'Jhoom' farming. At present, cash crops like potato and horticulture crops like apples, oranges and pineapples etc. are also being encouraged. Shing (jhum), a traditional method of farming, is used among the hill people of Arunachal Pradesh. The main yields of this farming method are rice, maize, barley and mothi (kootu). The main crops of Arunachal Pradesh are: rice, maize, millet, wheat, barley, pulses, sugarcane, ginger and oilseeds.
Its literacy rate has increased from 41,59% to 54.74% in 1991. 487796 people of this state are educated. According to the 2001 census of the Government of India, 20% of the residents of Arunachal are naturalists, who subsist in the Zoroastrian religion- do ni-polo and rangfraha. About 35% of the residents of Miri and Nokte caste are Hindus. 13% of the residents of the state follow Buddhism and about 19% of the population follow Christianity.
Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas, Dolomite, Limestone, Graphite, Asbestos, Placer Gold, Iron, Marble, Ferro-Silicon Grade, Quartzite, Lead and Zinc, Minor Minerals (Sand, Gravel, Boulders, Clay) of various types like are minerals. etc.) The Arunachal Pradesh Minor Mineral Concession Rules came into force from 2002.
More than 26 tribes reside in Arunachal Pradesh. Most of the population is of Tibeto-Burmese or Tai-Burmese origin. The major tribes here are Apatani, Aka, Bori, Adi, Tajin and Naishi. A variety of languages are spoken in Arunachal Pradesh.
The traditional attire of Arunachal Pradesh includes shawls, wraps and skirts. The traditional attire of Andhra Pradesh for men is dhoti and kurta. They also wear lungi and shirt. Before the 14th century, the traditional dress of Andhra Pradesh was dhoti for women. Later on, other traditional clothes like saris and langa voni came into play.
The culture, dress, religion, social conditions and languages of Arunachal Pradesh are influenced by tribes like Tibet, Burmese and Khamit living in the eastern region. Vanco dance, Mishmi (classical) dance, Degaru Mishmi (Bagaiya) dance, Khampti dance, Ka Fifai dance (drama) and Ponung dance (Adis) are very famous among the folk dances of the state.
Even though English is the official language of the state, Hindi is the connecting and communication language of the state. Apart from Sanskrit, Hindi and English are the main languages in Arunachal Pradesh which were kept optional.
In the state of Arunachal Pradesh, each caste has its own separate diet. Spices are used very rarely in this state. The favorite food of this region is steamed boiled rice (bhata) wrapped in leaves, Thupaka noodle soup is also liked by the Monpa tribe. Major dishes here include Thupaka, Panch Quick Tarkari, Misa Mach Pura, Dal and Egg, Kot Peetha etc.
Some of the main festivals of this state include ‘Mapin and Solungu’ of ‘Addis’ community, ‘Losar’ of ‘Monpa’ community, ‘Dree’ of ‘Apatani’ community, ‘Si-Donyai’ of ‘Tagnon’ community, ‘Idu Festivals include 'reh' of 'mishmi' community, 'nyokum' of 'nishing community'. The archaic practice of sacrificing animals is prevalent on most festivals.
More than 26 tribes live in Arunachal Pradesh. Most of the population is of Tibeto-Burmese or Tai-Burmese origin. The major tribes here are Apatani, Aka, Bori, Adi, Tajin and Naishi. Various languages are spoken in Arunachal Pradesh.
There are many famous tourist places in this state. The main tourist destinations of Arunachal Pradesh include Along, Milky Way, Itanagar, Khonsa, TP, Tawang, Tezu, Daporijo, Dirang, Namdapha, Parasuram Kund, Pasighat, Bomdila, Bhishmaknagar, Malinithan, Miao, Roing and Leakabali. Tawang Monastery is the largest Buddhist monastery in India and the second largest monastery in the world after the Potala Mahal in Lhasa. The state has four national parks and seven wildlife sanctuaries which are the center of tourist attraction.
Arunachal Pradesh has the following 20 districts: - Anjav, Changlang, Digang Valley, East Kameng, East Siang, Kar Dadi, Kurung Kumeya, Lohit, Longding, Lower Dibang Valley, Lower Subansiri, Namsai, Papam Pere, Siang, Tawang, Tirap, Upper Siang, Upper Subansiri, West Kameng and West Siang.
  • In currently, the Gross State Domestic Product (GDP) of Arunachal Pradesh is estimated to reach Rs. 299.74 lakh crore in 2020-21. The state’s GSDP will increase at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.1% between 2015-16 and 2020-21.
  • Currently estimated at 50,328 megawatts (MW), or approximately 22% of India's current power generating capacity. As of April 2021, the installed hydropower capacity in the state stood at 765.14 MW.
  • According to the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), FDI inflows to the northeastern states between April 2000 and March 2021 totaled US$ 142 million. At the same time, FDI inflows between October 2019 and March 2021 are estimated at US$ 5.55 million.
  • In February 2021, the Union Government approved the construction of roads measuring 598 km with an estimated cost of ~Rs. 1,100 crore.
  • Tomo Riba Institute of Health and Medical Sciences (TRIHMS), which is the first medical college in the state, was made operational and it received its first batch of fifty MBBS students in 2018.



    Arunachal Pradesh FAQs:

    𝒜. Arunachal Pradesh state got statehood on 20 February 1987.

    𝒜. The capital of Arunachal Pradesh state is Itanagar.

    𝒜. The folkdances of Arunachal Pradesh state are: Buiya, Chalo, Wancho, Pasi Kongki, Ponung, Popir, Bardo Cham.

    𝒜. The state bird name is Great hornbill and the state animal name is Gayal of Arunachal Pradesh state.

    𝒜. The current chief minster is Pema Khandu and the governor is B D Mishra (Retd.) of Arunachal Pradesh state.

    𝒜. The name of state flower is Rhynchostylis retusa and the state tree is Dipterocarpus retusus of Arunachal Pradesh state.

      Last update :  2022-06-28 11:44:49
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