Uttar Pradesh History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Uttar Pradesh, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Uttar Pradesh have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Quick General Knowledge
26 January 1950
2,43,286 sq km
Current Chief Minister
Nautanki, Raslila, Kajri, Jhora, Chappeli and Jaita.
Uttar Pradesh (उत्तर प्रदेश)
Uttar Pradesh is a state located in the northern direction of India. Uttar Pradesh is the largest state in India by population. The capital of Uttar Pradesh is Lucknow. Kanpur is the largest city in Uttar Pradesh. Only five nations of the world, China, India, United States, Indonesia and Brazil have more than the population of Uttar Pradesh. The main court here is located in Allahabad.
The history of the state is about 4000 years old, when the Aryans took their first steps to this place. In the later Vedic period it was known as 'Brahmarshi Desh' or 'Madhya Desh'. The Aryans spread from the Indus and the plains of the Sutlej towards the Yamuna and Gangetic plains. The Aryans made Dob (Do-Aab, Yamuna and the plains of the Ganges) and the Ghaghra River region their home. After these Aryans, the country of India was named Aryavarta or Bharatavarsha (Bharat was a prominent king of the Aryans). Over time, the Aryans spread to remote parts of India. Varanasi, considered one of the oldest cities in the world, is located here. The Chaukhandi Stupa at Sarnath near Varanasi is reminiscent of the first discourse of Lord Buddha. Over time, this region was divided into smaller states or became part of larger kingdoms, Gupta, Morya and Kushan. Kannauj was the main center of the Gupta Empire in the 7th century. The state got its current name "Uttar Pradesh" on 26 January 1950 when India became a republic.
The total area of the state of Uttar Pradesh is spread over 2,40,928 square kilometers. This state is bounded on the north by the state of Uttarakhand. It is bounded by Delhi and Haryana in the north-west, Rajasthan in the west, Madhya Pradesh in the south-west, Bihar in the east and Jharkhand in the south-east. Uttar Pradesh shares its international border with Nepal. Uttar Pradesh has the largest number of animals found in any city in India. The state bird of Uttar Pradesh is 'Peacock'. The state tree of Uttar Pradesh is 'Banyan'. The state flower of Uttar Pradesh is 'Sita Ashoka'. The state animal of Uttar Pradesh is the 'musk deer'.
The climate of Uttar Pradesh is tropical monsoon, which varies with altitude. The Himalayan region is very cold and there is a change in temperature along with the weather in the plains. The state has three distinct seasons. Winters are from October to February, summers are from March to mid-June and the rainy season is from June to September. The summers are dry and hot with dusty winds with an average 45 degree temperature. The annual rainfall is 990 mm on average. 85% of which occurs in the monsoon. There is a slight decrease in temperature during rainy days. Winters are very cold in which the mercury falls to 4 degrees.
Currently, there is a Bharatiya Janata Party government in Uttar Pradesh. The current Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh is Yogi Adityanath. He was sworn in as the 21st Chief Minister of the state on 19 March 2017. The first person to become the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh was Govind Ballabh Pant. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of the state on 26 January 1950.
The current Governor of Uttar Pradesh is Anandiben Patel. He is sworn in as the Governor of Uttar Pradesh on 29 July 2019. Sucheta Kripalani became the first woman Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and India in the year 1963.
The members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are elected the most from Uttar Pradesh. The state has 80 seats in the Lok Sabha and 31 seats in the Rajya Sabha. There are a total of 403 assembly seats in the state.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the third largest of all the states of India. According to a report published by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, the Government of India the nominal GDP of the state for the year 2020-21 is ₹ 17.05 lakh crore.
Agriculture is the mainstay of Uttar Pradesh's economy. More than three-fourths (75 percent) of the population here is engaged in agricultural work. Rice, wheat, jowar, millet, barley and sugarcane are the main crops of the state. The state lacks important mineral and energy resources for industrialization.
As a result, progress in adult education has been made and the census of 2001 indicates a male literacy rate of 70.23% and a female literacy rate of 42.98%. Presently, there are 866,361 primary schools, 8,459 higher secondary schools, 758 degree colleges and 26 universities in the state.
Mineral materials like silica, limestone, coal, gypsum, magnetite, phosphorite and bauxite are found here.
Uttar Pradesh is the largest state in India by population. The state population is around 22 crores. According to the 2011 census, about 80% of the state's population consists of Hindus, 18% Muslims and Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains and Christians in other communities. Uttar Pradesh is the birthplace of Hindi, the official language of India.
Traditional styles of dress include colourful draped garments – such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men – and tailored clothes such as salwar kameez for women and kurta-pyjama for men. Men also often sport a head-gear like topi or pagri.
The culture, tradition, literature and art of this place have their own invaluable contribution in the history of Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh is the origin of the ancient civilization of Hindus. Vedic literature, mantras, Brahmins, Shrutasutras, Grihyasutras, Manusmriti, etc., scriptures etc., the epic epic Valmikiramayana, and the Mahabharata (which includes the Srimad Bhagavad Gita) are notable parts of the Ashtadash Puranas that live in many ashrams here. There are many religious places and pilgrimage places in the state where many devotees visit. The two holy rivers, Ganga and Yamuna flowing through this state are also mentioned in the Indian Puranas. Fari Nritya, Janghiya Nritya, Panwariya Nritya, Kaharwa, Jogira, Nirgun, Kajari, Sohar, Chaita Singing are folk cultures of Uttar Pradesh.
The languages of Uttar Pradesh generally belong to two zones in the Indo-Aryan languages, Central and East. There are approximately 29 languages spoken in Uttar Pradesh. Hindi is the state's official language (Urdu is co-official), and according to census data, it is spoken by 91.32% of the population.
Each caste has its own separate food in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The state has a variety of Biryanias, Kebabs, Korma, Nahari Kulche, Sheramal, Zarda, Rumali Roti, Varki Paranthas and Rotis, etc. Kakori Kebabs, Galavati Kebabs, Patili Kebabs, Botti Kebabs, Chhotwan Kebabs and Shami Kebabs are prominent. Other dishes include 'Dumpukht', Sikha-Kebab and Rumali Roti with waxed onions and green chutney. Lucknow Chaat is one of the finest chaats in the country.
Uttar Pradesh is a state where festivals of all religions are celebrated from time to time. Religious practices and festivals form an integral part of the state's society and culture. Many festivals are celebrated here on the basis of caste and religion. The most important festivals are Deepawali, Holi, Muharram, Chhath Puja, Ram Navami, Dussehra, Mahavir Jayanti, Krishna Janmashtami, Eid, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Mahashivratri, Barh Vafat, Christmas and Bakrid.
Uttar Pradesh is one of the most populous states in India and is also home to several tribal communities. Some of the main tribes in the state are Baiga, Agaria, Bhoxa, Kol and more and some of them are recognized as Scheduled Tribes by the Government of India. The tribes of Uttar Pradesh include Aheria, Baiga tribe, Beldar, Bhoxa/Buksa people, Bind tribe, Chero, Ghasia or Ghasia, Kanjar, Kewat, Khairaha etc.
Uttar Pradesh ranks first in terms of domestic tourists with an annual figure of over 71 million due to ancient religious places. The main tourist places of Uttar Pradesh include Taj Mahal, Varanasi, Vindhyachal, Ayodhya, Gorakhpur, Jaunpur, Kannauj, Mahoba, Deogarh, Bithur, Lucknow, Chitrakoot, Prayag, Naimisharanya, Mathura, Vrindavan, Sheikh Salim Chisti Dargah at Fatehpur Sikri, Sarnath, Shravasti, Kushinagar, Sankisa, Kampilya, Piparawa and Kaushambi are full of important treasures of architecture and culture.
There are 75 districts and 18 divisions in Uttar Pradesh.
Uttar Pradesh is the state with the most districts in the country.
The largest district of Uttar Pradesh is Allahabad (by population), while Kushinagar (by area) is the largest district.
Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh is the only district in the country whose boundaries touch four states.
Following are 75 districts of Uttar Pradesh: - Ambedkar Nagar, Amethi, Aligarh, Agra, Azamgarh, Etawah, Allahabad, Unnao, Etah, Auraiya, Kannauj, Kanpur Dehat, Kanpur Nagar, Kasganj, Kushinagar, Kaushambi, Ghaziabad, Ghazipur, Gonda, Gorakhpur, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Chandauli, Chitrakoot, Jalaun, Jaunpur, Jyotiba Phule Nagar, Jhansi, Deoria, Pilibhit, Pratapgarh, Fatehpur, Farrukhabad, Firozabad, Faizabad, Badaun, Bareilly, Balrampur, Ballia, Basti, Basti, Bahraich, Bahraich, Bahraich Baghpat, Barabanki, Bijnore, Bulandshahr, Mau, Mathura, Maharajganj, Mahoba, Mirzapur, Muzaffar Nagar, Moradabad, Meerut, Mainpuri, Rampur, Rae Bareli, Lucknow, Lakhimpur Kheri, Lalitpur, Varanasi, Shamli, Shahjahanpur, Sant Kabir Nagar, Sant Ravid Nagar, Sant Ravi Nagar Nagar, Sambhal, Saharanpur, Siddharth Nagar, Sitapur, Sultanpur, Sonbhadra, Hamirpur, Hardoi, Hathras and Hapur.
The Gross State Domestic Product of Uttar Pradesh grew at a CAGR of around 8.43% between 2015-16 and 2020-21 to reach Rs. 17.06 trillion. The Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) grew at a CAGR of around 8.42% between 2015-16 and 2020-21 to reach Rs. 15.12 trillion.
Uttar Pradesh is a favored tourist destination in India with Taj Mahal, one of the eight Wonders of the World, located in Agra. In 2019, domestic tourist arrivals in the state reached 535.8 million. Foreign tourist arrivals crossed over 4.74 million.
As of April 2021, Uttar Pradesh had an installed power generation capacity of 28,001.95 MW—6,242.20 MW (state utilities), 13,562.74 MW (private utilities) and 8,197.01 MW (central utilities).
In June 2021, Greenply Industries announced that it will invest around Rs. 75 crore to set up plywood and allied products manufacturing unit at Sandila Industrial Area in Hardoi, Uttar Pradesh.
In January 2021, the state government announced its plan to build 1,038 new Ganga aarti platforms along the river in Bijnor and Ballia districts.