Assam History, Geography, Economy, Polity and Districts
Through this chapter, we will know the detailed and important information of Assam, in which important and interesting information like history, geography, economy, education, culture and world famous tourist places located in the state have been added. Apart from this, the recent developments and changes in the state of Assam have also been explained in detail. This chapter is full of interesting facts for the competitive aspirants as well as the readers.
Assam is a state located in the northeast of India. The capital of the state of Assam is Dispur, which is located in Guwahati. Assam is surrounded by other north eastern states of the country, hence Assam is one of the states known as Seven-Sisters of India. Arunachal Pradesh is located in the north, Nagaland and Manipur in the east, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya in the south and Bangladesh in the west. Assam shares its international border with the Indian states as well as Bhutan and Bangladesh. The state of Assam has its own separate state anthem. On November 18, 2013, Assam Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi declared the song "O Mor Apanor Desh" as the state's official anthem. This state anthem has been composed by litterateur Laxminath Bezbaroba.
Two dynasties ruled Assam during medieval times, namely Koch and Ahom. The coaches were of Tibeto-Burmese origin, while Ahom Tai was and ruled North Assam. India faced many attacks in the medieval period, but Assam had never been ruled by any foreign power before the British. Assam was attacked 17 times by the Mughals, but failed every time. After the first Anglo-Burmese War in 1826, West Assam was annexed by the East India Company. Finally, in 1833, Upper Assam got its king in the form of Purandar Singha. The state of Assam was established in the year 1912 (Assam Province - British India) and on 15 August 1947 as an Indian state of independence.
The oldest river in Assam and the lifeline of the state is the Brahmaputra River. The river enters the northeastern tip of Assam near Sadia, then about 724 km across Assam in the west. Flowing in a long way, turning south, it runs into the plains of Bangladesh. After entering Assam, this river becomes very wide and forms many tributaries. The Brahmaputra River has several major tributaries such as: Majuli, Subansiri, Bharali, Dhansiri, Sonai, Pagaldia, Manas, Sankash, Lohit, Navdihing, Budhi Dihing, Disang, Kapili and Digaru. Kaziranga National Park and Manas Wildlife Sanctuary of Assam are included in the UNESCO Global Heritage List. The state bird of Assam is the 'white-winged wood duck'. The state tree of Assam is 'Hollong'. The state flower of Assam is 'Draupadi Mala'. The state animal of Assam is a horned ganda.
The climate of the state of Assam is monsoonal like other states of the country, but 05 factors reflect the climate of Assam: (1) high altitude, (2) seasonal fluctuating pressure belts over northwest India and the Bay of Bengal, and their northern and northeastern states. Occasional oscillations. (3) Tropical sea winds. (4) Occasional western cyclonic winds. (5) Local winds of mountain and valley.
In this state, there is not much heat like the Gangetic plain, because often there are storms and rains. Fog here is 60 to 70 days in a year and the average annual rainfall is 200 cm. But in the central part (Guwahati, Tezpur) this volume is 100 cm. Less than 1,000 cm anywhere in the East and West. It also rains. The average winter temperature in the state is 12.8 degree Celsius and summer average temperature is 23 degree centigrade. The maximum temperature in the month of August during the rainy season is about (27.17 C्रेg).
The current Chief Minister of Assam is Himanta Biswa. He was sworn in as the 15th Chief Minister of the state on 10 May 2021. The first person to become the Chief Minister of Assam was Gopinath Bordoloi. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister of Assam on 11 February 1946.
The current Governor of Assam is Jagdish Mukhi. Jagdish Mukhi was sworn in as the Governor of Assam on 10 October 2017.
The economy of Assam is largely agriculture based, with 69% of the population engaged. The economy of Assam today represents a unique combination of backwardness amidst abundance.
Assam is an agricultural state. About two-thirds of the population in Assam cultivates. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy here. Rice is the main food crop of this state. The cash crops here are tea, jute, tea, cotton, mustard, oilseeds, sugarcane and potatoes. The major horticultural crops of the state are orange, banana, pineapple, betel nut, coconut, guava, mango, jackfruit and lemon. The total cultivable land in this state is about 39.44 lakh hectares. Out of this, cultivation is done in an area of about 27.01 lakh hectares.
Tea and jute are the major industrial crops here. Tea cultivation was started here in British time, but at present Assam is the largest tea producing state in India. Tea is cultivated in about 65 percent of the state. Of the 7,100 tea gardens in India, around 700 are located in Assam.
Assam is a state in northeastern India. In 2011, the literacy rate of Assam was estimated to be 73.18% (78.81% male and 67.27% female). The literacy rate of Assam is slightly below the national average of 74.04%.
The state is rich in natural resources like coal, lime, petrol and natural gas. Many types of minerals are found in the state, such as clay, magnetic quartzite, feldspar, sillimanite, porcelain, etc. India's first oil reserve is located in Digboi, Assam. All the famous gas and petrol reserves are located in the northern part of Assam which was discovered in 1889. The state has reserves of about 450 million tonnes of mineral oil, which is about 50% of the entire India.
According to the 2011 census, Assam had a population of 31169272. The state has seen an estimated 16.93 percent population growth in the last 10 years. The literacy rate of the state in the year 2011 was 73.18 percent and the rate of urbanization was 12.9 percent. Assam's literacy rate in 2011 was around 73.18 percent, with female literacy at 67.27 percent and male literacy at 78.81 percent. The Assam government provides free compulsory education to children up to 14 years of age in the state.
According to the 2001 census in Assam, Hindus numbered 1,72, 96, 455, Muslims 82,40,611, Christians 9,86,589 and Sikhs 22,519, Buddhists 51,029, Jains 23, 957 and 22,999 other religious. Belonged to the community.
The costume of Assam has its own identity. The dress of Assam has changed with the present time, the youth here are also adopting the costumes of western civilization, but if you want to see the costumes of Assam, then you can see it in its traditional festivals. Here men wear a special type of chadar above the waist called gamosha and dhoti below the waist. The women here use a specific type of chadar to cover the upper part of the waist and the dress worn below the waist is known as Mekhela.
The culture of Assam was greatly influenced after the rule of the Ahom and Koch dynasties. The most important role in cultural change was the Srimanta Sankardeva Vaishnav movement. This movement developed the culture of Assam in the fields of fine arts, literature, language and performing arts. The post-British period also influenced the modern culture of Assam. The impact of the mixture of North India and Western can be seen on the literature and arts sector of the state. There are some famous dances and dramas such as: Ankiya Nat, Bihu Dance, Kushan Dance, Bagurumba, Bordoisikhala, Sattriya, Banjar Kekan, Mishing Bihu etc. Music is also a part of the tradition of the state, such as folk songs, borgite etc.
The costumes of Assam have their own distinct identity. The dress of Assam has changed with the present times - the youth here are also adopting the costumes of Western civilization, but if you want to see the costumes of Assam, you can see it in its traditional festivals. Here men wear a special type of sheet above the waist, where Gamosha goes and dhoti below the waist. The women here use a special type of sheet to cover the upper part of the waist and where the dress worn below the waist goes to the mekhala.
The official languages of Assam are Assamese and Bodo. Bengali language also has the status of official language and it is widely spoken in Assam. There are also parts of Brajavali language in the language of Assam, which is made up of words from different languages of India. Different communities in the state speak different languages and around 45 languages are spoken in the state. The most spoken tribal language in the state is Santhali. The people of western Assam speak the Rajbongshi language, also known as Golparia or Kamatapuri. Some people in the Barak Valley also speak Bishnupriya Manipuri. In some parts of Assam, people are also seen speaking Nepali.
Tengamach (solar fish) and khar (alkaline) along with boiled rice (bhaat) are a popular food in Assam.
Many colorful festivals are celebrated in Assam. 'Bihu' is the main festival of Assam. It is celebrated three times a year - 'Rangali Bihu' or 'Bohag Bihu' marks the beginning of sowing of the crop. This is also the beginning of the new year. 'Bhogali Bihu' or 'Magh Bihu' is a harvest harvest festival and 'Kati Bihu' or 'Kangali Bihu' is a autumn fair. Religious festivals like Shivratri Fair, Deepavali, Ashok Ashtami Fair, Pausha Mela, Parashuram Fair, Ambukashi Mela, Dol-Jatra, Eid, Christmas and Durga Puja, etc. are celebrated in the state with reverence throughout the state. Almost all festivals are held for religious reasons. Are celebrated.
The largest tribes found in Assam are Garo, Kachari, Khasi, Lushai and Mikir.
There are many famous tourist places in the state of Assam. The major tourist places in and around the capital Guwahati are the famous Kamakhya Temple, Umananda (Mayuradeep), Navagraha Temple Vashistha Ashram, Dolgobind, Gandhi Mandap, State Zoo, State Museum, Shukreshwar Temple, Geeta Temple, Madan Kamdev Temple, and Saraighat Bridge, etc.
Other places of interest:
Kaziranga National Park (famous for one-horned rhinoceros).
Manas Tiger Project, Pobitora and Orang (Wildlife Park).
Sivasagar (Shiva Mandi, Rangghar, Karangghar).
Tezpur (Bhairavi Temple and Ramanik Sathan).
Bhalukpung (Angling), Hofflang (Healthy Place and Jatinga Hills).
Majuli (World's largest river island).
Chandubi Lake (picnic spot).
Hajo (Buddhist, Hindu and Islam).
Batadrava (the birthplace of the great Vaishnava saint Shankaradeva).
R. Sualkuchi (Famous for silk industry).
Assam has a total of 27 districts, the largest district by population is Naogaon and the smallest district by area is Karbi Anglong.
Assam has the following 27 districts: - Baksa, Barpeta, Bongaigaon, Cachar, Chirag, Darang, Dhemaji, Dhubri, Dibrugarh, Dima Hassao, Goalpara, Golaghat, Hailakandi, Jorhat, Kamrup, Kamrup Metropolitan, Karbi Anglong, Karimganj, Kokrajhar, Lakhimpur. , Morigaon, Naugaon, Nalbari, Sibsagar, Sonitpur, Tinsukia and Udalguri.
At current prices, Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Assam is estimated to reach Rs. 4.09 trillion in 2020-21. The GSDP of the state grew at a CAGR (in Rs.) of 12.38% between 2015-16 and 2020-21.
Assam exported key items such as tea, petroleum products, coal, coke and briquettes and other products. In FY21 (until January 2021), the total tea exports from Assam accounted for 217.89 US million doller, which was 64% of the total export.
As per the press meeting held at the Divisional Railway Manager (DRM) office in May 2021, 48 kms of new railway line between Abhayapuri and Gauripur in Dhubri district is expected to be inaugurated next month after getting green signal from the CRS.
In February 2021, India and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) signed a US$ 304 million loan agreement for the Assam Intra-State Transmission System Enhancement Project to improve reliability, capacity and security of the power transmission network in the northeastern state.
In February 2021, the Chief Minister of Assam, Mr. Sarbananda Sonowal, laid the foundation stone of Assam Skill University at Mangaldoi, Darrang. The university will provide skill education to the youth of India with a specific focus on Assam, and North Eastern region. This project is scheduled to be completed by September 2026.
In February 2021, Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi launched the ‘Asom Mala’ programme in Dhekiajuli of Sonitpur district with the intention to enhance the state's road infrastructure, boost economic progress and improve connectivity.